Thursday, October 31, 2019

Peer response Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 11

Peer response - Article Example re that manager or leaders of nursing homes have comprehensively evaluated techniques and strategies that would ensure continued existence of these nursing homes. Factors that are within management’s control are costs, which they deemed, should be kept at a minimum, to generate profits, as needed. Another comment is that team learning and shared mental models are internal factors that management could tap to increase job satisfaction and productivity (Bossche, Gijselaers, Segers, Woltjer, & Kirschner, 2011). But these alone, could not ensure increased profits, if and when not enough revenues are generated by nursing homes. I share the same contention, however, that ‘in times of economic scarcity, cutting back on teamwork is a mistake, as teamwork is needed then more than ever’. Actually, in diverse settings, regardless of economic condition, organizations should harness the power of teamwork as a means of improving performance and productivity. Teamwork should go beyond teams in respective departments of the organizations; but more so, the collaborative departments that comprise the entire organization. As such, shared decision models would be useful in soliciting responsible inputs from different departments to facilitate achievement of the organization’s

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Fostering Maximum Employment and Price Stability Assignment

Fostering Maximum Employment and Price Stability - Assignment Example To foster maximum employment and price stability, the committee reassured that its target of 0% to 0.25 % rate remains appropriate. In establishing long-term goals, the committee has established measures that shall be used for monitoring and evaluation techniques which will take into account a wide range of information regarding the current market structure. Nevertheless, if updates indicate faster progress toward the committee’s employment and inflation objectives than the committee is currently expecting, then increases in the target range for the federal funds rate are likely to happen sooner than expected. On the other hand, in cases, progress appears to be slower than anticipated, and then increase in the target range are certain to occur later than is currently anticipated. According to last two statements, the committee’s stance has not changed on maintaining its current policies regarding reinvesting principal payments from its major holdings of agency debt as well as agency mortgage-backed securities and of rolling over maturing Treasury securities at auctions. It is currently anticipated that even after employment and inflation are close to mandate-consistent levels, economic situation may for a while, warrant keeping the target federal funds rate below levels the committee views as normal in the longer run. The council decided to keep the key ECB rates unchanged, as regards nonstandard monetary policy measures, the aim is now in implementation. Following the council’s prior meeting, the council shall start purchasing euro-subjugated public sector securities in the secondary market. Additionally, the council shall continue purchasing asset-backed securities as well as covered bonds which had begun the previous year. The joint monthly purchase s of private and public sector securities will total to  £60 billion of which are intended to be carried out until the end of September 2016 and will always be adjusted until there is proper adjustment in inflation path which is consistent with the council’s aim of achieving inflation rates below, but close to 2% over the medium term.  Ã‚  

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Was Sir Douglas Haig a Good or Bad Leader?

Was Sir Douglas Haig a Good or Bad Leader? The issue of Douglas Haigs role as a general on the Western Front, during the Battle of the Somme in 1916, has been thoroughly questioned by many historians to date. Through different views and opinions, Haigs skills have been both heavily celebrated and criticised. Therefore he has been viewed as both Butcher of the Somme and the Architect of Victory, much evidence supporting both arguments. However the majority of people seem to favour the idea of Haig being a merciless leader, which is completely understandable. For instance, the Battle of the Somme hugely affected almost every person in Britain, many losing family members. For them, it would have been easy to blame the British losses solely on General Haig, and many did just that. However many people saw him as a highly gifted soldier and leader, and there was a good side to Haig, for example, he did manage to eventually wear down the German army, and played a part in the result of World War 1. Therefore this controversial issue will perhaps be continually debated. The Battle of the Somme was a largely Scottish battle, with three Scottish divisions participating. This also applied to Douglas Haig, who was born in Edinburgh and was commander in chief. He was blamed for the enormous slaughter of the Battle of the Somme, during which there were around 60,000 British casualties on just the first day, a third of which were killed. This alone is evidence enough for a lot of people of Haigs failures as a general. However, many of the flaws in Haigs leading of the Battle of the Somme stemmed from the fact that he was commanding a group of sixty divisions, when the usual number was just six. This shows the extreme circumstances under which Douglas Haig was commanding at the Battle of the Somme. The Battle of the Somme was a significant event in history; this is mainly due to the absurd amount of deaths, even though they were no larger than were to be expected, however some people find fault in the fact that Haig kept the army fighting even when he became aware of the continuous height of casualty figures. Just like any general, Haig strove for success, however he had a major fault: he was extremely optimistic, and constantly believed that the German army was close to surrendering, therefore believing that a win was also close. This positive personality is shown by a quote which Douglas Haig himself said at the beginning of the war, The situation is never so good or so bad as first reports indicate. However, even though he felt that his army was fully capable of defeating the Germans, he wasnt correct, in fact, Haigs army didnt have the huge amount of soldiers, which the German army were able to take advantage of this clearly shows that his targets were impossibly to achieve , he was just too ambitious. Haig was also heavily criticised for the ridiculous length of the battle, this was simply because it could have been ended much sooner than it was, and this would have even prevented Britain in constantly finding fault in Haigs leadership skills. The main reason that Haig even allowed the battle to continue because he wished to straighten his trenches, as this would have had a great effect on his armys attacks. However Haig was also criticised for allowing the British army to fight in the appalling weather at the time of the Somme, although technically he cannot take the entire blame for this decision as the idea actually came from the French army officer. Haig was certainly one to override his army commanders, although this is understandable, as if he found their advice questionable then he had to trust himself to make the correct decision alone. However at the beginning of the battle of the Somme, Haig was overruled himself, by the governments of Britain and France, they asked Haig to attack the German army at that point in time, but Haig didnt agree this was because he felt that his armies werent ready; however his argument wasnt effective, therefore he was ignored. Haig understood that he would have to plan an attack quickly, because if he took too much time to do so then the alliance which stopped the French from attacking the British could be put in jeopardy, and that was a risk that Haig couldnt afford to take. At the start of the battle, the British army looked to have no chance in defeating the German army, in fact, Official History wrote that the Somme was the first time that the †¦British line been held with so few men and so few guns†¦. The British army were also overwhelmed by the power of the Germans and after just one day of fighting there were an enormous number of casualties, most of them due to bite and hold attacks. In the beginning, Haig was severely short of forces and, trying to find a solution, ended up having to leave Goughs twelve divisions alone to defend 42 miles of the front, this resulted in some having very few soldiers. Haig could have managed the Somme better, however by the end of the battle, the British were achieving success against the Germans and eventually the Germans did surrender, in fact the German General Ludendorff mentions in his autobiography, My war memories, As a result of the Somme we were completely exhausted on the Western Front. When considering Haigs skill as an army commander it has to be remembered that the situation at the Battle of the Somme was extremely unique, Haig was handling ten times the amount of forces, most of whom were learning the tactics of war as they went along. After the battle ended Haig was compared to other generals who sent hundreds of soldiers to their deaths, he was viewed as uncaring and constantly making horrible decisions. Although Haigs opinion of the turnout of the war was never made clear, it was suggested that he agreed with the result, as in 1919, Haig defended the fact that the Germans were offered a settlement at the end of the war. The relationship between Douglas Haig and David Lloyd George was a cause of major conflict and had an overpowering effect on Haigs reputation. Lloyd George was clear in the fact that he had no trust or liking for Haig, especially during the Somme, when he didnt understand why Haig was allowed the high casualty rates to continue, especially since this didnt give any advantage to the British. He saw Haig simply as a man with no intelligence, and no understanding, although he also never replaced him, or even stood up to him. However, it was no secret that a war was waged between Haig and Lloyd George. An example of the tension between these characters was on the 1st September, when Haig received a telegram from Henry Wilson, marked personal, this carried a warning, that Haig was to stop preventable casualties during the battle of the Somme. The clear reason for the telegram was for the protection of Lloyd George; however Haig took it that he could strike the Hindenburg line if he felt t he need to do so. The tension between them grew when Lloyd George published his war memoirs, in which he unleashed an attack on Haig, both, simply as a man and as part of the army. This was one of the very little books that really cause chaos for an important figures reputation, especially since when it became available, Haig had already passed and therefore he couldnt even protect his own reputation. However Lloyd George isnt the only politician that Haig had a significant relationship with, Haig and Winston Churchill also had a somewhat interesting relationship, in fact Haig helped out Churchill in the writing of his book, The World Crisis, by sending him parts of his personal diaries which he kept during the war. The reason that this is interesting is the fact that Churchill often criticised Haig, especially as a General during the war. However, Churchill did admit that when reviewing the war he began to think a good deal better if Haig than I did at the time. Unlike Lloyd George, Churchill felt that it would be impossible to find as good a general as Haig was to replace him. Haig didnt mind some criticism from Churchill in his book, but it was that criticism which strongly effected Haigs reputation. The conflict between these politicians and Haig meant that Haig had to fight the war against not only the Germans, but also those politicians. It wasnt just Churchills writing that affected Haigs reputation though; there were many different memoirs and accounts released after the war, by many different people, for example, David Lloyd George, Churchill and Gough. However when these records were released Haig mentioned to Foch that he couldnt release a book on the war, as it was too soon to tell the truth. If he had written them however, they would have not only been successful, but would have probably heightened his reputation. However Haigs Final Dispatch, published in 1919 actually had only a small effect on the opinions of the war. Yet, decades later, a revisionist historian, John Terraine revised these arguments and tried to re-build Haigs reputation. In fact, Terraines Douglas Haig: An Educated Soldier strongly defended Haigs reputation, his main point being that it was Haig who eventually wore down the German army. However historian, John Laffin, has the opposite opinion, he feels as though Haig should be accused beca use of his wilful blunders and wicked butchery. This shows clear argument between the two recent historians, both trying to challenge Haigs reputation. Terraine passed away in 2003, however before his death, he did manage to change the way that some people saw Douglas Haig, and he restored Haig to the position of serious commander. Haig was criticised and celebrated by different historians, few ever looking at both sides of things. Haigs reputation was heightened the most due to his input in helping and celebrating ex-servicemen. Haig devoted a large part of his life, after the war, to charity events and war-memorials. This shows that people were even slightly wrong about the fact that he didnt care about the young men fighting in the war. For example, in 1922, Haig travelled to Swansea and 4000 people turned out to see him lay a stone for the city memorial, and in 1925, the Haigs toured Canada; some 10,000 people came to see Haig lay a stone on a cenotaph in Toronto. Also, in Glasgow, in 1924, Haig revealed a monument. These days people may be shocked to find out that in 1925 Haig opened the Newfoundland Memorial Park; this was where the 1st Newfoundland attack took place in 1916. The fact that Haig was sought after to carry out the ceremony by the government, shows that even though there is constant argument over Douglas Haigs reputation, at this time he must have been highly thought of. This is why Haig was overwhelmed with huge amounts of requests to reveal all sorts of different memorials. Haigs speeches at these events were never completely neutral, the issues of sacrifice and the needs of ex-soldiers were constantly highlighted. This made his reputation improve to a lot of people, because they felt as if he was more caring. In the early 1920s Haig began to type up his wartime diary, he wished for this to be published after his death. In 1928 a line of war diaries and memoirs began being published, some attacking Haigs reputation seriously, however Haig wasnt alive to see this, as on the 29th January 1928, Douglas Haig died of a heart attack. This death came as a shock to Britain, many people in disbelief. Haigs wife believed that the strain of wartime command had worn out his heart, and the media began to print headlines, field marshal a war victim, Haig was treated just like any soldier who had fought in the war, and he too was seen as a war casualty. The real surprise after Haigs death was the extent to which the public mourned him; his death was treated much more graciously than any other British general. Therefore his coffin was escorted by the two future kings of England, showing that he was obviously an important member of the nation, even though some people viewed him as a callous butcher. This was reinforced because St Pauls, Wrens great cathedral was suggested as where Haig would be buried and if he had been then hed have been buried with Wellington and Nelson, two heroes from WW1, however Haig had wanted to be buried at home, in Edinburgh, therefore he body was sent north. A crowd of people waited for him to arrive, to pay their respects. Eventually he was buried in the grounds of Dryburgh Abbey. However the event of his death just brought more conflict to the argument of Haigs reputation. Again, Haigs reputation plummeted. Therefore Haigs reputation is constantly debated, going from one extreme to the other, barely ever balancing, or being fair to the actions of Haig. However much argument is presented in favour of Haig, the evidence is overpowered by the casualty figures of the battle of the Somme, by Churchills criticisms of Haig and by the tension in Haigs relationship with David Lloyd George, these are the facts people cant just forget and therefore the points which effect Haigs reputation. Haigs reputation was most significantly analysed through memoirs and accounts, for example of Churchill, Lloyd George, Gough and Terraine, although his reputation took a severe hit after his death also. Its clear that Haig will forever be viewed as heartless general, which is a fair judgement, considering the fact that he was the general in charge during the Battle of the Somme, and allowed the horrific casualty figures to present, and the fact that he let the battle go on for much longer than it should have, fo r personal or no gain, and thats why Douglas Haig will forever be condemned as Butcher of the Somme. Hedging Techniques: Analysis of pros and cons Hedging Techniques: Analysis of pros and cons This report will discuss the basics of hedging, advantages and disadvantages of hedging. There is description of methods and techniques used for hedging. This also discusses the primary need of hedging. Then follows the detailed calculations of the receivables of 500M pesos due in six months time and the best way of hedging to get the most of it. This report then goes on to discuss the forward contracts and futures along with forward options that are available for individual and basic differences between forward contracts and options Introduction: An unexpected change in exchange rates is the economic exposure which is commonly seen as a political disaster or natural disaster. The effect of economic exposures on exchange risks is kept out from this paper on one hand. On the other hand the cross-border firms do not get affected by the volatility of the exchange rates, in terms of the translation transaction exposures. Foreign exchange risk does not exist; even if it exists, it need not be hedged; even if it is to be hedged, corporation need not hedge it. When compared with certain results this hypothesis seems to be inconsistent. Different ways have been found out by some empirical researches to hinder different exposures. For instance, in some real cases financial instruments or netting was applied. Hedging and Importance Normally foreign exchange rates are dictated based on the supply and demand of two currencies and are persuaded depending on both the interest and inflation rates of the corresponding countries. For entering into a contract both the parties those are going to buy sell must have to be familiarised by the forward exchanging rate. Above all relationship between forward exchange rates, spot exchange rates, inflation and interest have to be introduced. Due to some factors such as government intervening and costs of transaction, relationship should not always be hold in the short run. But however the relationship could be hold on the long run by the four parties: purchasing power, expectations theory, the interest rate parity the international Fisher effect. Types of exchange rate exposures: In an international firm exchange rate losses those are unfavourable are protected by hedging currency exchange risk. Thus hedging currency exchange risk can be considered as one of the factors for eliminating risks. There are basically three forms of exchange rate exposures. Transaction exposure Translation exposure Economic exposure Transaction exposure: It is caused when the organisation is driven into certain financial agreements or obligations. The future gains or losses of an organisation are completely dependent on the changes caused to the exchange rates in the future cash flows of the agreements or obligations. The values that were before after the accounts received paid along with those engagements to buy or leasing financial cash flows do not match. The risk of transaction exposure is completely different from the risk of transaction exposure since the former one contains potential changes regarding cash flows. Translation exposure: Translation exposure is also known as balance sheet exposure or accounting exposure. It is a kind of exposure which occurs when if the financial statements of all the affiliates have been consolidated by the parent company. The denominated currencies of the affiliates are quite different when compared to their parents. Economic exposure: Economic exposure is also known as real exposure or operating exposure. It is mainly concerned about the risk of losses in exchange in association with the changes in future cash flows. It is completely different from the former two exposures which operate by long-term diplomatic decisions. There are mainly three barriers for non-financial organisations hedging currency risks compared to the financial organisations. Firstly, models to forecast forward are not well devised. Secondly, team of management is incessantly hesitant to hedge risks of FX the team seems to risk-averse with respect to FX risks. Lastly, the risk management is less in non-financial firms compared to financial firms. The main purpose of hedging FX risks for most of the non-financial firms is for variance reduction in future cash flows. Some of the advantages of corporate hedging are as below. It can predict the cash flows of the firm that are generated internally can arrange the financing plan of a firm either internally or externally. Also hedging helps for the smoothening of the net income of a firm, which proves to be valuable in the present financial market which focuses attention to quarterly earnings rather than the cash flows in the long-run. Based on the proponents of hedging, some of the many arguments are opposed to hedging. Spending on hedges of currency opt for an exceed in the loss in currency risk exposures. If the management fails in reducing the risks using hedging, rivalry arises between management shareholders, where as the value of the shareholder crumbles. There are several hedging instruments in order to protect our money from getting exposed to the above mentioned exposures/risks. These hedging techniques include spot, forward contracts, options, futures, currency swaps and so on usually referred to as derivatives. The most frequently used instruments are: Forward Contracts: The two parties enter a contract in which they agree on a favourable current exchange rate on a specified future date. Thus this guarantees a customized future payment and maturity date and eliminates future volatility. It is tailor made instrument that it includes and specifies all its parameters like money, date, exchange rate and denomination of payment. Also the cost of forward contracts is low comparing with other instruments and the settlement date is up to one year. Futures: These are similar to forward contracts but are more standardised in terms of volume that is about to be exchanged. This is generally intended to speculating profits. Spots: This allows us to buy or sell a currency at todays exchange price and the day of settlement will be no more than two business days. Currency Options: Options are like contracts but are more costly than contracts. It guarantees a worst-case exchange rate for the future purchase of one currency for another. There is a right to sell or buy but there is no obligation to do so as such giving the options holder substantial benefits. Currency Swaps: These are in general long term high value transactions. By swapping their future cash flow obligations the counterparties are able to replace cash flows denominated in one currency with cash flows in a more desired currency. As requested billing in U.S. dollars, forward contracts and money market hedge are some effective techniques of hedging and safe guarding the firm from any possible fluctuations and risks arising from the same. In U.S. dollar billing we charge the goods at the rate in their home country but enter a contract based on the spot rate on the day of sale, and which means they need to pay the equivalent amount in dollars when the payment is due. Irrespective of the fluctuations of the currency rates the company is bound to make the payment of that exact amount of dollars at the end of contract or due date. Forward contracts are mentioned above lock in the exchange rate on future currency transactions and thus reducing their exchange risk. The payment is due in future but the current exchange rate is used for entering into such a contract. Money market hedge is a technique where in the company relies on borrowing and investing funds via money markets and using the spot rate to lock in the amount from the receivable. We borrow in the home currency the same amount that we are expected to receive ad invest in the other currency. Billing in U.S. Dollars As per our previous exports made to Mexico, we will receive 500 million Mexican Pesos. The spot rate of Peso/USD is 15.3555-15.3561, one of 15.3555 is the bid price at which the trader will buy from us and 15.3561 is the price at which he will sell. So we need to buy 500 million Mexican pesos meaning we need to consider the spot exchange ask rate 15.3561. Thus the 500 million Mexican pesos will come to USD which is $32.5604 M. Therefore we will be receiving a definite sum of $32.5604 M after the end of contract which is 6 months. So what ever is the exchange rate at the end of 6 months or whatever be the range of fluctuations we will get $32.5604 M. But the company has to pay an equivalent of $32.5604M which is $32.5604M*15.3555 = 499.9812M pesos. This is mainly due to the depreciation of peso with respect to US dollars. Forward Contract Since the goods have been exported the importer is now short if 500 million Mexican pesos. By entering into a forward contract we sign an agreement with the importer, which states that the delivery of the equivalent of the amount due should be made after 6 months time at the forecasted forward rate which is 15.0123-15.0134 (peso/USD). So as in the previous case we will be entitled to a sum of USD which turns out to be $33.3036 M. Hence we now entered into a future contract which gives us $33.3036 M at the end of 6 months. While we receive $33.3036 M, as an equivalent to 500 M Mexican pesos, the importer needs to pay the trader an amount of $33.3036*15.0123 = 499.9636 M pesos. However if the future rate increases then the importer is obliged to pay the 500M pesos at the prevailing spot rate. But in case the spot rate goes down then the importer has to meet the previously agreed rate for the payment. Money Market Hedge Here we are expected to receive 500 M pesos, so we borrow the same amount from a Mexican bank at the borrowing rate of 2.6% p.a. and we convert them to US dollars and invest the exact same amount in US dollars at 3.1% p.a. We borrow 500M Mexican pesos at 2.6%, which is = 493.5834M and we convert them into dollars at the prevailing spot rate of 15.3561, which transforms to = $32.1425M and we invest them in US market at 3.1%, which gives us $32.1425*1.016 = $32.6568M. But once we receive the payment of 500M pesos the loan will have to be repaid and we have $36.6568M*15.0123 = 550.3029M pesos, whereas the loan amount is 500M*1.013 = 506.5M pesos. Which means we have a profit of 550.3029M-506.5M pesos = 43.8029M pesos, which in turn is = $2.9176M Best Hedge By observing the figures, it is clear that future contracts method is more beneficial than the rest of them. This hedging earns us $32.5604M by billing in U.S. dollars, $33.3036M in forward contracts and $32.6568M by money market hedging. Derivatives The derivative securities market has become quite large in recent years. In 2007, according to the International Swaps and Derivatives Association the notional value of all financial swaps stood at $587 trillion worldwide. The GDP of the entire world was only about $60 trillion by the year 2008. The swaps and derivatives transfer risk from those who do not want to bear to those who are willing to bear for a fee. It is almost like insurance on property or automobile. For example, a put option is to safeguard if the price of a stock is expected to fall. And, like the insurance industry, both parties are mutually benefitted by this type of transaction; it is called hedging. Bulk of the transactions in derivative securities is mainly based on speculation than for the purposing of hedging against foreign currency risks. These help in providing liquidity in the currency market apart transferring risk. The sizes of banks and stock brokerage firms in derivative securities may give rise to huge loss which may well bring the entire financial system to a standstill. At the same time, some participants in these derivatives markets are reporting huge profits. Swaps The derivatives market involves more than just put and calls options. There are also contracts involving swapping fixed interest rate payment streams for adjustable or floating interest rate payment streams. Simply put its mutual agreement of two parties which satisfy both the parties. Forward Contracts and Futures Swaps, caps, and floors are recent innovations in the derivatives markets. The derivatives market traditionally included forward contracts in addition to options (puts, calls, warrants). A forward contract involved a commitment to trade a specified item at a specified price at a future date. The forward contract takes whatever form the two parties agree to. There is also a market for standardized forward contracts, which is called the futures market. The standardization makes possible a wider market with greater liquidity and efficiency. Often the futures markets eliminate the ties between specific parties, the party and the counter-party, and the risk that the other might not fulfil the contract. In the futures market everyone deals with the clearinghouse who guarantees fulfilment. Forward exchange operations carry the same credit risk as spot transactions, but for longer periods of time; however there are significant risks involved. A forward contract requires delivery, at a fixed future date, of a specified amount of one currency against other foreign currency payment; the exchange rate is fixed at the time of writing the contract. It is to be noted that gain or loss on the forward contracts is irrespective of the current spot rate. The gain or loss exactly offsets the change in currency costs. The major active participants in forward markets are arbitrageurs, traders, hedgers who seek to reduce their exchange risks by locking in the exchange rate on future trade or financial operations. There are differences in even the quoted prices, commercial customers are usually quoted the actual price while the dealers quote the forward rate only as a discount/ premium on the spot rate. These contracts are usually available for 1,2,3,6 or 12 months delivery. However forwards for odd maturities can also be formulated. With the increase in the maturity and volatility of the currency the bid-ask spread rises. Forward Exchange Options Contract In the options market there has developed some terminology that is somewhat intimidating to the uninitiated. A call option is the right to buy a share of a stock, the underlying security, at a specified price, called the exercise price or the strike price. A put option is the right to sell a share of a stock at a specified price, the exercise price or the strike price. There is a limited time for the exercise of the call option. An American option can be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date. A European option can only be exercised on the expiration date. The value of a call option at any time depends upon: The current market price of the underlying security The exercise price The interest rate Time remaining until expiration The volatility of the price of the underlying security. When any of these change the value of the option will change. The options terminology that is most obscure is the use of Greek letters to refer to the response of the option value to changes in the variables which affect it. Ά Delta = the change in the price of the option per unit change in the price of the underlying; i.e., the increase in option value if the current market price of the stock goes up by one dollar. Delta is important in creating a perfectly hedged portfolio. The rate of change of the delta of an option is called its gamma. à Ã‚  Rho = the rate of change in the price of an option in response to a unit change in the interest rate. ÃŽÂ ¸ Theta = the rate of change in the price of an option with respect to time; i.e., the change as the time until expiration decreases by one unit. Vega (this is not a Greek letter) = the rate of change in the price of an option for a unit change in volatility. Despite having the right to buy a call option or to sell a put option, the rights holder is not obliged to buy or sell but can do so at his will. This will give him total flexibility as to when to buy/sell his options

Friday, October 25, 2019

Comparing the Mothers in The Glass Menagerie and A Raisin in the Sun Es

Comparing the Mothers in The Glass Menagerie and A Raisin in the Sun   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The plays, The Glass Menagerie and A Raisin in the Sun, deal with the love, honor, and respect of family. In The Glass Menagerie, Amanda, the caring but overbearing and over protective mother, wants to be taken care of, but in A Raisin in the Sun, Mama, as she is known, is the overseer of the family. The prospective of the plays identify that we have family members, like Amanda, as overprotective, or like Mama, as overseers. I am going to give a contrast of the mothers in the plays.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In The Glass Menagerie, by Tennessee Williams, we embark on the task of seeing a family living in the post WWII era. The mother is Amanda, living in her own world and wanting only the best for her son, Tom. Tom, a dreamer, tired of Amanda’s overbearing and constant pursuit of him taking care of the family, wants to pursue his own goals of becoming a poet. He is constantly criticized and bombarded by his mother for being unsuccessful. This drives him to drinking and lying about his whereabouts, and eventually at the end of the play, he ends up leaving. An example of Amanda and Tom’s quarrel I when he quotes, â€Å"I haven’t enjoyed one bit of this dinner because of your constant directions on how to eat it. It’s you that makes me rush through meals with your hawklike attention to every bit I take.†(302) Laura, on the other hand, is shy and out of touch with reality because of a slight disability, in which she is comfort...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Drowned Out

Ivana Aleksich November 1, 2012 Film Review: â€Å"Drowned Out† The way this documentary was filmed shows the people who contributed to the film to living and working alongside the villagers and I found this helped capture the candid interviews and the honest and realistic impact of the way villagers of living in India due to the government dam project. Not only do people have to make a choice of whether they Move to the slums in the city, accept a place at a resettlement site or stay at home and drown. This place is not just a piece of land where they live but it is their home, their identity.This reminds me personally of my connection with Serbia. My family has to leave their homeland because of war and invasion. My family did not see this as moving to a better place, but saw it as their homeland being destroyed. Who they are as people dead in a place that no longer exists like it once had. This is how I see the people in the villagers, they are being forced to say goodbye t o a certain part of them, their family, and ancestors forever. In the student presentation relating to the world bank and dams refers to something very important to villagers. Non-material things are what are important to the villagers.After the dam is built, I will drown out the cultural traditions of the villagers, create development of affected communities in isolation, and cultural shift, new lifestyles and attitudes. The documentary follows the villagers of Jalsindhi. This village is in Madhya Pradesh on the banks of the Narmada River about ten miles upstream from the Sardar Sarovar project. The 76 villages struggle through a battle against the dam. The lead character is Luharia Sonkaria, who is the village’s medicine man, a role that was his father’s and grandfather’s before him. The government provides them no viable alternatives.The government offers unusable land a hundred miles away or a small sum of money in compensation for their river-side land. The film documents hunger strikes, rallies, and a six year Supreme Court case, and finally follows the villagers as the dam fills and the river starts to rise. The documentary features Arundhati Roy, who has been an outspoken activist bringing international attention to the controversy. Government aims to provide electricity, irrigation and drinking water to tens of millions of people. Government is confident in this claim. The government has a completely difference views of the impact of the dam.They believe the dam will help the people and make them happy. But the government has nothing to lose from this dam project because the people in government do not live in the area that the dam is supposed to floor. The villagers have everything to lose and millions of them did. This brings up the struggle between the rich and the poor/the powerful and the less powerful. The big question that is stated in this documentary is, â€Å"For whom is this development for? † The government trie s to convince the villagers that this is for them and their benefit, but in reality the villagers are not being taken into account for this dam project.This dam development is solely for the purpose the one thing that is universally valued: money and the power of government. Villagers and poor people are not at level in society where they can rely on money and power. They believe in things that the government and money could never find important. Villagers value their traditions and their old lifestyle. The government and the world bank is working to become more modern and to gain more money. For this reason alone, the government is aware of what will happen to the villagers but the government could not understand how hard this project will hurt the villagers and their lives.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Factors that Impact Demand for an iPad

Internal: Pricing decisions Unique features (Apple's iPad was one of the first tablet to have the app world where user can download applications such as games or books and use it right away after download has been completed. ) External: Availability of competitors' products Price of substitute products Incomes of potential customers There are several essential factors that impact the demand for iPads, these are: price of the product (internal variable), price of substitute products, and incomes of otential customers (external variables).As the primary principle of the demand function stated, that if price of a certain product or service increases, the quantity of that same product will decrease. Most, if not all, customers make their purchasing decision of a product based on its price (all other things held constant). If there are two similar products but one is more expensive than the other, it is rational to choose for the cheaper product. Now, how can an expensive product such as iPad still reate a lot of demand in the market?The answer that I could think of is product uniqueness and product loyalty. When Apple's iPad first came out in 2010, this product was not cheap. But it was due to its unique features that the competitors did not have that made iPad successful. Today, there are a lot of tablets that have about the same features as the iPad and offer a lower price. I would say that product loyalty is also one of the reasons why there are still demands for ‘Pads.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Private Interest vs. Public Interest Groups essays

Private Interest vs. Public Interest Groups essays Interest groups abound in the United States thanks to several factors. First and foremost, our own Federalist government, with many centers of power, in combination with the freedom secured by our Constitution, encourages the forming of interest groups. As constituents see wavering political parties, with blurred political lines, interest groups are created to ensure strong stands are taken on issues. And lastly, interest groups proliferate, in part, due to "the great number of social cleavages along income, occupational, religious, racial, and cultural lines." ("Interest Groups") With all of this activity, why is the Board of the Consumers' Association having difficulty attracting new It is understandable that the Board is feeling frustration in the apathy they perceive from Americans in general. Americans are blessed to live in a country that is comfortable for the average resident. Certainly there are challenges that need to still be addressed in the Land of the Free, however, in comparison to other countries still under tyrannical oppression, Americans have it pretty good. This comfort level brings about a level of apathy. Couple this with a natural human resistance to change, and it becomes clearer why more Americans aren't active in any interest group, let alone the Board's. To counter this, the Board needs to first determine whether they are a public or private interest group. A public interest group is one that concerns itself with issues that affect the nation as a whole. With this wide demographic to solicit, they have the benefit of soliciting support from every citizen of the United States. Their weakness however is that oftentimes their stand on public issues is on one extreme end of the spectrum, which the average American, although agreeing with the stand in general, cannot support the extremity to which they've gone. An example of thi ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

4 Essays - Education, Learning, Educational Psychology, Articles

4 Essays - Education, Learning, Educational Psychology, Articles Article Research Analysis on Desired Learning Style Student's name Institution affiliation Instructor's name Course Date of submission Introduction This is a n investigati ve article analysis on the undergraduate scholar investigators, desired education styles and pure science research. It's a n engaging combination that was printed in the " Clearing H ouse J ournal " and was documented by " Woeste and Barham. " This article can be accessed from " Week One Electronic Reserve Findings ." Analysis of this article will mainly focus on the summary of the report, the form of the information contained in the section and to identify whether the information provided in the article is reliable and valid to use in other fields. The article analysis will also focus on how the information contained in the report c an be used to bring changes in learning institutions . Summary of the article The article majorly is centered on the " B asic Science I nvestigation " and the part that a group dynamic plays on a learner . The research has identified that while technical ration of the study can have an enormous task, students investigators are always confronted with the booming in various crescendos as well. Barham and Woeste , (2018), in their research found that the favored scholarship style of a learner can have a significant benefit s for the mentors. This is because it permits them to have a significant appreciation of how to addre ss and meet different problems in their lives. This article also accounts the context of working beside learners investigators who choose diverse scholarship styles ( Hancock, and Algozzine, 2016) . The writers of this article also connect this information on the effects of being well informed and their influence on students preferred learning techniques an d how they can contribute to the creation of environments conducive for learning experiences. They found that this eventually has a significant impact on winning combination for the whole team. Type of information in the article First, the article introduces two kinds of student researchers and their preferred learning styles of students. There are two student researchers in the report the first one has favorite scholarship style of kinesthetic and the second learner has favorite learning style of graphical , but together agreed that audio is the slightest ideal learning style. According to , Barham and Woeste, "the nature of basic science research required strict adherence to sterile technique, chemical hygiene protocols, quality control guidelines and handling of microbiological specimens." In both types of investigation , learners were requested to exhibit different methods required in simple science, and they both did consequently, presenting a detailed appreciative and capability in the procedures needed. The next section of this article contains the start of the project (Bryson, etal, 2018) . After the grant submission was received, the leaners investigators were asked to examine and give detailed information on the timing of adherence of the bacteria to various substances. It was observed that student's one had difficulties in establishing something new, and was able to proceed after being given directions. It was also noticed that after moving student one from office to laboratory, showed significant improvement and competence in using instruments and apparatus provided. The decision to move student one from office to the laboratory had significant influence because the researcher was able to play a critical role in contributing learning styles that best suited his or her requirements. In the case of student two, there was no need to exhibit hands-on tactic to exhibit different concepts for the various fragments of the project. Woeste and Barham observed that student two was inquired to document all procedures and information regarding the task . The fact that researchers need to be recorded for the future reference students research two played a vital role in the documentation aspect of the research. At the end of the project learner researcher two significant contributions to this project. This had a substantial impact in the manner that benefited the project to suit his or her preferred learning auditory learning least. This article also explains how research leaner one and two did during the presentation of their project. In both cases, they were

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Analysis of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren

The presidents have always played a crucial role in American politics and are known for their roles in unifying the nation. They are glorified for their charisma and ability to lead, but even these brilliant men make economic, political, and social blunders. Andrew Jackson, who was in office from 1829-1837, was a president of many firsts as he was the first frontier president, first to have a kitchen cabinet, and first to use a pocket veto. Jackson was later succeeded by his vice president, Martin Van Burden. Van Burden, who was in office from 1837-1841 , was known for his shrewd political skills.Both these men laid down the foundations for a stronger, more centralized national government with methods that garnered mixed responses. Andrew Jackson was a war hero turned president, but his battles did not end with his election. One type of problem Jackson faced was economic. South Carolinian planters saw that the protective tariff, passed by Congress in 1 824, as oppressive since most of the revenue made from it was invested in the northeasts manufacturing industry. They were more infuriated when the tariff was raised in the summer of 1828 (Brinkley 207).The South Carolinians and Vice President John C. Calhoun saw the taxes as blatantly unconstitutional, exceeding Congresss powers to raise necessary revenues and oppressing one section of the country while enriching others (Willets 63). A nullification document written by Calhoun known as the South Carolina Exposition and Protest was passed by the state legislature in 1 832 as a response. This text announced that any state could declare its original sovereignty and disregard federal laws that are found offensive in their borders.In retaliation, Jackson sent federal troops to South Carolina to enforce the law, but before any violence could ensure the state backed down Brinkley 207). This created a strong rift between the Jackson and his vice president that turned in to a bitter rivalry between the two. Jacksons strong approach caused the executive branch to become unstable and eventually Calhoun and he split in 1832 (Willets 64-65). Another negative economic event that Jackson faced was his clash with the Second Banks of the United States. The Second Bank of the United Sates was a privately owned institution with an outrageous amount of public influence. With a congressional charter, it was the national governments sole fiscal handler and could use public ends without interest for its own discretion (Brinkley 211). Due to this, Jackson saw the Bank as an unconstitutional aberration and an affront to popular sovereignty (Willets 75). There was also opposition of the Banks by advocates of soft money, who were mainly state banks, and advocates of hard money, who were people that disapproved all banks and believed only in coins for currency (Brinkley 211). O when it was time for the Banks charter to be renewed in 1832, Jackson. He removed all federal funds the following year and when the original charter expired in 1 836 all operations as a national bank ended. This would subsequently cause the economy to become unstable a year later (Willets 79-80). Although there were no wars during Jacksons administration, there have been close calls. A treaty was created, in 1831 a year before Jackson took office, whereby France agreed to pay reparations for damages made on American shipping under the reign of Napoleon.The French Chamber of Deputies, however, later refused to allocate the appropriate funds. Jackson infuriated with this called on Congress to allow for reprisals should the French not pay. Both nations refused to back down and the bickering spiraled to the point where they recalled their ministers and a war seemed imminent (Willets 138). The crisis was averted with the French eventually ceding with urgings from Britain. Jacksons stubbornness and refusal to back down landed the United States in hot water, especially in provoking a nation like France that she would not be able to fight. Jackson also faced the issue of American advancement into the west. The removal of Indians was a major concern of his administration and management of the situation was the most notable gaffe of his administration. Like many other Americans at the time, he believed that the Indians were inferior to white men and saw them as savages. Once in office, Jackson urged the Indians to move westward and give up their land, but he was adamantly opposed. The first of the land battles began with Georgia when the state claimed millions of acres of Indian land.The Indians responded with a suit in the Supreme court that was ruled in their favor, stating that Georgia had no authority over their land. The Georgians ignored this and a white invasion of the land ensued. Jackson did nothing to enforce the ruling and there was no consequences to the blatant disregard of the Supreme Court (Ermine 60-61 Later, the Indian Removal Act of 1 830 was eased and signed by Jackson which gave him the authority to make treaties that would exchange land in the west for Indian land east of the Mississippi.It also stated their relocation would be paid for by the federal government. The Indians opposed this act because although it seemed peaceful, they were removed forcefully. This led to many bloody conflicts in which one side would try to seize the land while the other side tried to protect it. The struggle continued and many citizens were polarize on the issue as some saw the Indians as hindrances to American expansionism while the others saw it as outright disrespect of the Indians rights.Eventually in 1835, after the anti- treaty supporters negotiated better terms, a treaty was signed in which the Indians would give up their land in exchange for other lands wes t of the Mississippi (Willets 139-141 This later led to the Indians large exodus where thousands suffered. Although Jacksons decision allowed for the nation to expand, it was at the enormous expense of the Indians. He forcefully kicked them Off their land and treated them as if they were livestock that did not deserve basic human rights. Jackson served for two terms and remained incredibly popular even after resigning.He was the true epitome of a poor, country boy who grew up to become president. He was a self-made man that used his presidency to help ordinary people rather than the rich. Although he had he helped the nation to grow, it came at the sacrifice of so many innocent lives. His popularity with the people led to the election of Martin Van Burden, who was his vice president and once the most powerful member of Jacksons cabinet as Secretary of State. At the very beginning of Van Burdens presidency, he faced the first major economic crisis that America had experienced thePanic of 1837. This fiscal fiasco was triggered by Jacksons withdrawal from the Second Bank of the United States and deposition into state banks of federal funds. Consequently, there was reckless speculation by the banks in lands westward (Willets 1 19). The bubble finally burst in 1837 and hundreds of businesses and banks failed, causing the worst depression of the economy at the time. Van Burden did little to relieve popular misery as he called for less government intervention and created no programs to help with the massive unemployment rate (Wider 102).He later proposed for the rancher of federal funds to an independent treasury. This bill would eventually be passed year latter, but many blamed him for the crisis and inadequate response to it. It ultimately led to his crushing defeat by the William Henry Harrison, the Whig candidate, in the following election (Wider 103-104). During his presidency, Van Burden also faced raising tensions with Great Britain as there was a heated border dispute near the Canada-Maine border. This skirmish brought the two on the brink of war. However, Van Burden sought to revolve this conflict before violence resulted.General Winfield Scott and an envoy were sent to Britain to negotiate a treaty, which subsequently concluded the conflict. Many criticized Van Burdens cautious diplomacy as they felt that he should have taken a stronger stance against Britain and assert the United States as a force to be reckoned with (Wider 131). Slavery at the time was a controversial topic as many northern cities saw it as an abomination that should be abolished while in the south it was the center of the economy. Starting in 1836, many slave owners looking for space to expand saw Texas as the solution to their problems.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Transportation by Sea Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Transportation by Sea - Assignment Example A busy seaport should therefore be viewed as a powerful yardstick for measuring the development in the region in particular and in the country in general. But, the overall development of a port depends on several factors including that of having the port in a geographically advantageous location. The locational advantage, among other factors, plays a prominent role in the growth prospects of a port as it would naturally make the port accessible to the shipping lines of several countries. Apart from the locational advantage, a port should internally posses certain technical advantages too for efficient handling of port operations. and strictly prefer seaports that would reduce transportation costs and time. Port location is therefore one of the prime determinants of its development. The growth of a port also depends on the depth of water, warehousing facilities and the total area. These requirements, along with the importance of location, should be properly studied for port designing and construction depending on the type, size, number and frequency of vessels that would call at the port, type and volume of cargo that would be handled and needs of the warehousing facilities and terminals. ... agoon, in a deep natural bay or river would naturally attract the attention of shipping lines and develop very fast (Internet, Port Planning, Factors influencing sea port locations). Locational advantage When a port is located in a geographically convenient location joining several shipping routes and providing accessibility to several countries, it undoubtedly attains the geographically locational advantage. Such a superior port conspicuously draws the attention of the shipping lines and attracts huge demand for its services. If the port is also located in a deep water zone, it would facilitate the docking of the bigger ships (Internet, A new port in Shanghai, 20 miles out to sea, Para 9). Because of the innumerable advantages of having deep water ports, several countries, including India, have drawn up big plans in this regard (Internet, Ambitious growth plans for Kakinada deep water port, 3 2001). The main advantage of such a port is that its services are generally useful not only for the country but also for its neighbouring countries. Different countries, operating their shipping lines for the transportation of their different commodities and goods, would crave for utilising the facilities of such a port to meet their growing demands. When the advantageous location is effectively aided by the presence of industrial growth in the region, it adds magnificently to the port development (Internet, The fundamentals of ports management, function and role of an international port). Infrastructure While the locational advantage is the nature's gift for a port and serves as the basic ingredient for its development, the port location should be fortified by the presence of excellent infrastructural facilities to render quality services at reduced costs to various

Progression in Knowledge Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Progression in Knowledge - Essay Example Currently, I am a student with a double major in international relations with a concentration in Europe and French. My perspective in life gradually changed and significantly broadened as I matured in age. My aspiration in life was not confined anymore to merely attain personal success in life but I came to the realization as I understand my role in society as part of the next generation. But as to be expected in life, there are many hindrances along the way. As an international student, the fluctuating currency rates contribute to the difficulty in supporting my education. We are not a wealthy family and tuition fees are arduous on my parents. With no other source of paying for a summer study abroad, it is indeed very difficult. But even though financial matters pose a hindrance to my goals, I am determined to make the extra effort as this step forms a major component of my course. This is the very reason why I appeal to the generosity of this institution to grant me a scholarship. I trust that a university such as this will esteem and recognize efforts coming from promising pupils. I am aware that there are many applicants requesting for this opportunity. Despite this, I am settled to take my chance as this will pave a way for me as an international student. I am aware that being a student in this institution carries with it a great responsibility and requires utmost devotion and determination. It is my aspiration to gain knowledge and expertise in this university to better myself, to be able to provide for my family in the future and be an asset to the community. I view this as another challenge to improve my personality.

Market Structures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Market Structures - Essay Example Monopolistic competition along with oligopoly constitutes the structure of imperfect competition. Firms that are imperfectly competitive offer many products. The products are offered at administered prices. The price changes are costly and slower. The prime prediction of the theory of monopolistic competition is that firms will produce at the level where marginal cost equals marginal revenue in the short run. However in the long run, the firms will operate at zero profit levels and the demand curve will be tangential to the average total cost curve. The figure shows the marginal cost curve for the monopolist (MCsm) for the short run. MCsm is the summation of the short run supply curves (SRSc) in the competitive market. The loss of producers’ surplus (area B) and consumers’ surplus (area B) arises from the profit maximizing decision of the monopolist. A monopolistically competitive firm can operate above the level of normal profit. The above figure represents the economic loss for a monopolistically competitive firm. For a monopolistically competitive firm economic profits are zero and at equilibrium average total cost equals price. Both the firms in monopolistic competition and perfect competition are able to zero profits in the long run. It is possible for a firm operating in the monopoly market to acquire economic profits in the long run. The price is greater than the minimum point of Average total cost curve in the long run but in perfect competition price equals minimum of average total cost. In perfect competition price is lower and output is higher than monopolistic competition. A form of market where the industry is dominated by small number of sellers is called oligopoly. Each oligopolist is aware of the market conditions as few sellers are present in the market. The decision of one firm can influence or are influenced by other firms. The responses of the participants of the market are taken into account in

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Energy drinks effect Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Energy drinks effect - Research Paper Example The main loss of water from the body is due to perspiration According to various studies if one loses water up to two or more percent of ones body weight (water makes 60% of the body weight) due to sweating (If a man/woman weigh 50 Kilograms and if s/he loses one liter sweat), that will lead to a drop in blood volume. This will force the heart to work harder to pump the blood through the arteries. This is the extreme situation of dehydration. This leads to muscle cramps. The functioning of the brain heavily depends on water. Thus dehydration affects the brain leading to fatigue and dizziness. If not re-hydrated immediately this situation may even lead to heat illnesses like Heat Stroke and Heat Exhaustion. In addition to excessive sweating, other causes of dehydration are inadequate fluid intake, failure to replace fluid losses during and after the exercises, working out in dry hot weather, in the open, and drinking only when one is thirsty. There was a time when water was the only or one of the few sources of hydration. But water as a hydrant was found to have a lot of limitations. The major draw back of water as a hydrant is that it doesn’t replace the salts or electrolytes lost during perspiration. Water easily quenches thirst even before the body gets re-hydrated. Only few people like the taste of the water; most find the taste relatively bland. More over, drinking too much water can, though rarely, cause hyponatremia or water intoxication. It was these limitations of water as a hydrant that forced researchers to develop energy drinks especially for sports. Energy drinks or Sports drinks with their typical sweet-tart taste combination don’t quench thirst. So one is likely to drink larger volumes of energy/ sports drinks, compared to water which helps to maintain a better level of hydration. POSITIVE EFFECTS: Electrolytes or salts and Carbohydrates are the major components of an energy drink or sports drink. Protein is another component

History of Learning Theories Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

History of Learning Theories - Research Paper Example A brief history of the theories of learning can provide a context for understanding social learning. The basics of three learning theories—Behaviourism, Cognitivism and Constructivism—are discussed in this section (Mergel 1998). Behaviourism took form as a learning theory when Aristotle made an essay entitled "Memory". This essay discussed associations between events such as lightning and thunder. The theory concentrated on behaviours that are overt enough to be observed and measured (Good & Brophy 1990). The illustration is that the mind is some sort of a â€Å"black box† such that the response to a stimulus can be quantified and observed. However, this assumed that the possibility that processes are running in the mind are totally ignored. Pavlov was considered as one of the key players of the development of the Behaviourist Theory together with Skinner, Thorndike and Watson. Pavlov was known for his reputation as the Russian physiologist who worked on stimulus substitution, more popularly known as classical conditioning. His experiments mainly involved food, a dog and a bell. Others who followed Aristotle's thoughts include Hobbs in 1650s, Hume in 1740s, Brown in 1820s, Bain 1860s and Ebbinghaus i n 1890s (Mergel 1998). However, when the 1920s came, the limitations in the behaviourist approach to understanding learning were noticed. It was in this time where Cognitivism was born. Specifically, Edward Tolman observed that the rats he used in his experiment seemed to have a mental map of the maze he was using for the experiment. It was noticed that when he closed a part of the maze, the rats did not bother to look for an alternative path because they seem to know that it led to the blocked path. This was the phenomenon that behaviourists were unable to explain. Certain social behaviours seemed to be out of the bounds of behaviourism.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Writing Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Writing Assignment - Essay Example But this is inappropriate because young judges and senate members do not get a chance. The system should be fair for all. Certain factors should be considered to determine the retirement age for a job. These factors may vary from one job to another. For example, if the job is of a pilot, factors that need to be considered to establish the age of retirement include visibility, memory, and judgment. These skills should be selected because these play the most important role in helping the pilots make informed decisions during a flight. Surveys should be conducted to find out when pilots on average start losing these skills. There are mandatory retirement ages for jobs in my country. My country is Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In KSA, the statutory retirement age for civil servants is 60 years irrespective of the length of service. Captain Haynes might have made an appeal to the US Supreme Court to let him continue his service drawing upon his experience and especially his immaculate performance during the United Airlines Flight 232 crash. There are chances that he might get some

History of Learning Theories Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

History of Learning Theories - Research Paper Example A brief history of the theories of learning can provide a context for understanding social learning. The basics of three learning theories—Behaviourism, Cognitivism and Constructivism—are discussed in this section (Mergel 1998). Behaviourism took form as a learning theory when Aristotle made an essay entitled "Memory". This essay discussed associations between events such as lightning and thunder. The theory concentrated on behaviours that are overt enough to be observed and measured (Good & Brophy 1990). The illustration is that the mind is some sort of a â€Å"black box† such that the response to a stimulus can be quantified and observed. However, this assumed that the possibility that processes are running in the mind are totally ignored. Pavlov was considered as one of the key players of the development of the Behaviourist Theory together with Skinner, Thorndike and Watson. Pavlov was known for his reputation as the Russian physiologist who worked on stimulus substitution, more popularly known as classical conditioning. His experiments mainly involved food, a dog and a bell. Others who followed Aristotle's thoughts include Hobbs in 1650s, Hume in 1740s, Brown in 1820s, Bain 1860s and Ebbinghaus i n 1890s (Mergel 1998). However, when the 1920s came, the limitations in the behaviourist approach to understanding learning were noticed. It was in this time where Cognitivism was born. Specifically, Edward Tolman observed that the rats he used in his experiment seemed to have a mental map of the maze he was using for the experiment. It was noticed that when he closed a part of the maze, the rats did not bother to look for an alternative path because they seem to know that it led to the blocked path. This was the phenomenon that behaviourists were unable to explain. Certain social behaviours seemed to be out of the bounds of behaviourism.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Current government priorities Essay Example for Free

Current government priorities Essay How far does the budget reflect current government priorities? Governments view of the economy could be summed up in a few short phrases: If it moves, tax it. If it keeps moving, regulate it. And if it stops moving, subsidise it Ronald Reagan In my coursework I shall be discovering what the annual government budget is, what it is spent on and why, correlating this with current priorities. I shall be investigating to what extent does the governments expenditure reflect on these current government priorities i. e. the amount spent on defence, the education sector and social protection. I shall be mostly using secondary research, through using websites and maybe books. I will compare spending from previous budgets to the current one and find out where changes, if any, have been made. Through figuring out where the money is spent, I can discover what the main priorities are but not neglecting the fact that some sectors are larger and undoubtedly require money being spent, e.g. Healthcare and public order safety. Government expenditure is vital for the efficient running of the economy. The need for much of the government expenditure arises from the facts that some goods will not be provided at all by a free market economy (public goods) and that others will be under-provided (merit goods). It is spending on these goods that accounts for a large proportion of government spending (health, education, police and defence, among others). Some government expenditure is aimed at providing a safety net for the less well off in society and ensuring that they are able to survive in the event that they lose their jobs or have insufficient income. The department that deals with the allocation of most of this money is the Department of Social Security. Other government expenditure is aimed at various areas that may be considered important in a developed economy providing a transport infrastructure, supporting the work of local government and servicing any debts that may have been accumulated in the past. Fiscal policy refers to government policy that attempts to influence the direction of the economy through changes in government spending or taxes. Fiscal policy can be contrasted with the other main type of economic policy, monetary policy which attempts to stabilize the economy by controlling interest rates and the supply of money. The government in power needs to ensure that the budget expenditure is divided correctly and proportionately to the areas that require it most. This depends on the government priorities. The two main instruments of fiscal policy are government spending and taxation. Changes in the level and composition of taxation and government spending can impact on the following variables in the economy: On aggregate demand and the level of economic activity; the pattern of resource allocation and the distribution of income. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditure and taxation to manage the economy. The main changes in fiscal policy happen once a year in the Budget. It is in the Budget that the Chancellor sets the levels of taxation and government expenditure for the next fiscal year. The fiscal year runs from 6th April one year until 5th April the following year. This is why the budget is usually in March. The changes in it come generally into effect in the following month. Fiscal policy is based on the theories of British economist John Maynard Keynes. Also known as Keynesian economics, this theory basically states that governments can influence macroeconomic productivity levels by increasing or decreasing tax levels and public spending. This influence, in turn, curbs inflation (generally considered to be healthy when at a level between 2-3%), increases employment and maintains a healthy value of money. Unfortunately, the effects of any fiscal policy are not the same on everyone. Depending on the political orientations and goals of the policymakers, a tax cut could affect only the middle class, which is typically the largest economic group. In times of economic decline and rising taxation, it is this same group that may have to pay more taxes than the wealthier upper class. Similarly, when a government decides to adjust its spending; its policy may affect only a specific group of people. A decision to build a new bridge, for example, will give work and more income to hundreds of construction workers. A decision to spend money on building a new space shuttle, on the other hand, benefits only a small, specialized pool of experts, which would not do much to increase aggregate employment levels. Graph to show inflation rates in the UK compared with the United States and Canada. Monetary Policy involves changes in the base rate of interest to influence the rate of growth of aggregate demand, the money supply and ultimately price inflation. Monetarist economists believe that monetary policy is a more powerful weapon than fiscal policy in controlling inflation. Monetary policy also involves changes in the value of the exchange rate since fluctuations in the currency also impact on macroeconomic activity (incomes, output and prices). Basically, it is the process by which the government/ bank controls the supply of money, or trading in foreign exchange markets. Monetary policy is generally referred to as either being an expansionary policy, or a contractionary policy, where an expansionary policy increases the total supply of money in the economy, and a contractionary policy decreases the total money supply. Expansionary policy is traditionally used to combat unemployment in a recession by lowering interest rates, while contractionary policy has the goal of raising interest rates to combat inflation or calming an overheated economy. The government receives its money from many different areas, the graph on the next page shows exactly where from and how much: As from the chart we can see that the largest proportion of governments income is due to income tax that at à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½157bn it is à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½63bn more than the 2nd largest. Tax comes in many forms, as shown by the chart and when totaled up it is à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½587bn, this breaks down to à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½9,650 for every man, woman and child in the UK per year. What is the money used for and spent on? Well the money that the government has gathered from its many different forms of tax is spent entirely on the public. The pie chart below clearly represents what these different sectors are and how much money is actually spent on them. As we can see social protection is predominantly the largest sector that government spending is allocated with a à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½57bn lead on the second largest, health, at à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½104bn. From this chart it can be easy to assume that the areas with the largest spending would be those that are the largest priorities. That can be accepted to a certain extent to where you look deeper within that and take into account that some sectors are larger than others and therefore require more money to keep them running, i.e. social protection. Now I shall look at the different sectors and analyze each one, looking at the governments main aims and objectives and comparing whether the money they are spending on each one is reflecting that; for example if in public order and safety the government wanted to initiate huge crackdown on underage drinkers and vandalism then surely the money spent in that area would be increased dramatically. I shall compare what was spent on those sectors in the year 2006 and compare that with the budget released in 2007. Taking into account inflation, which from 2006 to 2007 was 3% I can work out whether spending, has increased by a lot, remained the same or dropped. To begin with I shall look at the area of social protection, which is the largest of all spending. Social protection consists of policies and programs designed to reduce poverty and vulnerability by promoting efficient labor markets, diminishing peoples exposure to risks, enhancing their capacity to protect themselves against hazards and interruption or loss of income. In 2006 the government spent à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½151bn on social protection whereas in 2007 they spent à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½161bn, which even after taking into account inflation this is still a dramatic increase. This could by due to the fact that unemployment has risen from 2006 2007 and with employment and training being an area of social protection, more money is being spent to try and bring the figures down again. The next sector that I shall look at is the environment. Protecting the environment is a major concern for todays government; well it has been for many years but even more so now. As Britains industry continues to expand and destroy most of our beloved countryside and pollute our skies, pressure groups and environmentalists increase the strain on the government to protect and instigate new legislation to help reduce the effects of the unstoppable industry. In attempts to keep these groups happy the government invests more money every year to meet their demands. Examples of these include the à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½800m environmental transformation fund and funding for cleaner ways to produce energy such as wind farms and nuclear power. There has been an increase of expenditure for housing and environment from 2006 2007 of à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½4bn, which concludes the fact that it is an ever-increasing issue. This research indicates that current government spending in the environment does directly reflect the fact that is a main priority. In the past 3 years it has shown that the government has increased its spending by around à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½4bn per annum on the environment. If compared with other sections of spending, the environment ranks lower in comparison with others, such as social protection. This could signify that the environment is not classed as such a high priority; although relating to my earlier point of stating that the some areas are larger and therefore require more money suggests that it is not less of a priority. However, it could also be due to the fact that the government believes that protection of the population and the healthcare too are more of a priority than preserving the environment. So it can be looked at in both ways. I myself believe that the government thinks the environment is less of a priority and therefore less money should be invested there. Healthcare in Britain is different to that in most other countries in the way that we have adopted a system called the National Health Service. The NHS is paid for through our taxes and so therefore offers healthcare for everyone in the UK and securing the provision of comprehensive, high quality care for all those who need it, regardless of their ability to pay or where they live or their age. The aims set out by the Department of Health are to: * Supporting activity at national level to protect, promote and improve the nations health; * Securing responsive social care and child protection for those who lack the support they need. The key objectives for pursuing these aims are to: * To reduce the incidence of avoidable illness, disease and injury in the population. * To treat people with illness, disease or injury quickly, effectively and on the basis of need alone. * To enable people, who are unable to perform essential activities of daily living, including those with chronic illness, disability or terminal illness, to live as full and normal lives as possible. * To maximise the social development of children within stable family settings. These aims and objectives are generic to most years of the NHS but as research and new technologies develop the spending must increase to match demands of the population. In 2002 the Chancellor of the Exchequer announced that by 2008 there would be the largest ever increase in health spending at à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½40bn. This is a huge enlargement of the budget spending and obviously shows that health is a main priority if the government is willing to increase its spending by this much. It has been released that every year there shall be an increase of around 4% on health spending. Although the government is injecting a large section of the budget into health care it is not dramatically increasing it every year and sacrificing other sectors money to pour more into healthcare. The government is slowly increasing the amount spent in health and all the time, every year introducing new legislations and targets to make the NHS a more efficient and improved service for everyone within the UK. We are determined to maintain our disciplined approach, determined not to make the old British mistakes of paying ourselves too much today at the cost of higher interest rates and fewer jobs tomorrow Gordon Brown This quote suggests that by not putting too much money into a single sector it reduces the chances of having an economic backlash in the future. I agree with this and believe that by making smaller steps and gradually increasing expenditure it improves the economy at a much greater scale in the long run and prevents unwanted repercussions that may damage the economy. By pushing more money into the sectors it could cause the desired effect to become counter-productive and hinder more than help. Some people believe that the budget is only increasing in the health sector by such amounts because the ongoing criticisms have driven the government to improve its image and please the people to keep the current party in power. Fostering high standards of education is the Governments greatest responsibility. In England this responsibility lies with the Departments for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF). About 93 per cent of children are educated in state-run primary and secondary schools; the remainder go to independent schools that rely on privately-paid tuition fees. Through these central government organisations, the provision of education in the UK includes monitoring and improving standards in schools, colleges and universities; ensuring that everyone no matter what disability or special need they may have is included and has access to high quality education; promoting work experience for young people and vocational training for employees; and encouraging lifelong learning. Through the British Council, the Government actively promotes education in the UK to countries all over the world. Other major organisations help to guide and make welcome some 275,000 overseas students who currently enjoy the advantages of living and studying in the UK. Before June 2007 schools were the responsibility of the former Department for Education and Skills. Education is gradually becoming increasingly more important within the UK as greater than ever numbers of young graduates roam the job market relegating others without degrees into a league of themselves. To employers education is the main thing they look at on CVs, dismissing experience and background for the simple number on the piece of paper. So education is a main priority for the government to try and make Britains children as well qualified as they can be, pushing the economy further up the ladder and improving things for all. So education for the government has became a huge priority and this can be shown by the recent announcement to raise the school minimum leaving age to 18; offering college courses and apprenticeships and also A-Levels to every child. Implementing this new legislation would obviously require a huge increase in the budget allocated for education, which would either mean another increased tax, which has happened for the past 11 years while Gordon Brown had been Chancellor, or sacrificing other areas of spending to improve education. Making these decisions requires undoubtedly many months of thinking and consultation before arriving at a suitable judgment. In the 2007 budget report, the government announced that investment in education and skills would rise to à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½90bn by 2010/2011. In a clearer spectrum, there is a à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½4bn increase from 2006 to 2007 then a à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½5bn increase from 2007 to 2008 and therefore proves that the government is gradually increasing the percentage increase spent on education annually. In evaluation it can be said that although there isnt a dramatic increase in the spending on the education sector, there are other factors that affect the efficiency of it too. For example money may not be being spent efficiently in the employment and the social protection areas, which are having a direct effect on the education, this can easily be mistaken as problems within the education spending rather than stepping back and realising that it could be issues somewhere else. Increasing the funding in education and training programs could significantly reduce unemployment levels (a major concern for the government) and increase the productivity per worker. In the UK the productivity per worker is substantially lower than other countries such as the US and Germany by as far as 30% in 2002. I believe that education is a major priority for the current government as competition from other countries towers above Britain and with the productivity per worker as low as it is, surely suggests that something within the education sector must be improved to raise our working standards. As the investment in education carries on rising at such rates it must be taken for granted it is becoming an even greater priority, especially with other countries almost mocking us with their efficiency. In 2007 we missed 24 of our 57 targets set by the government in education which raised awareness of the problem widely and brought it to the forefront of priorities. I believe in Britain we need better qualifications to lower unemployment and bring our workforce into the productivity ranges we need to compete with other countries or otherwise our place in the worlds economy will gradually being to fall. In comparison with previous years spending the 2007 budget does not seem to have any major, out of place differences with previous years and generally it appears every sector has just risen with the same annual percentage. However it is within these sectors where the money expenditure has changed. Implementing new legislations and programs, eliminating ineffective ideas and changing the dynamics of how each area is run is where the change in money being spent has taken place. This is a pie chart to represent the budget was spent in 2006: In 2007: In conclusion the amount spent on each sector does reflect the amount to which it is a priority but many other factors must be taken into account when judging that. Some areas such as social protection are such a far larger sector than that of industry, agriculture, employment and training and therefore will ultimately require more money to keep it running smoothly and keep the economic balance. Other areas may be of greater importance and priority such as education, but by spending ridiculous amounts of money on it will be counter-productive and cause many long term problems so despite the fact it is more of a priority, by spending less money on it does not reflect that. By reviewing past years budgets and comparing them with more recent ones it is possible to find where greater amounts of spending has occurred and what sectors are gradually having a greater percentage increase in their spending annually. Another reason why spending doesnt reflect current government priorities is because although spending may not increase that much, time and effort to reorganise and implement new legislation to improve an area could equally suggest that it is a priority but money would not solve it, just improving the efficiency would. Sometimes spending money on one area will directly affect another positively anyway such as improving education will also improve employment and training. As a general rule the governments role is to keep inflation low, keep unemployment low, balance in international trade and maintain a flourishing and prospering economy. The government has been investing large amounts of money into training schemes and other projects that have ultimately led to the unemployment rate falling to 5.2% in February 2008. The claimant count was 793,500 in February 2008, down 2,800 over the previous month and down 126,500 over the year. This is the lowest figure since June 1975. The claimant count has now fallen for 17 consecutive months. This shows that the investments into training and education has led to the fall in unemployment which proves my theory that spending in other sectors subsequently helps others. One could just quite plainly say that the government spending does not reflect current government priorities or otherwise if it did then there would be a perfect economy because the money spent would be used to its full potential in exactly the right places, doing exactly the right thing; lowering unemployment, improving healthcare, lowering inflation etc. I believe that the difference in the previous budget and the current one describes the extent to which the budget reflects current government priorities better than the looking at the budget itself as the current priorities will determine how much spending will increase in each sector and those with the larger increases (after taking into account inflation) show that they are more of a priority than those with little or no increase. Generally, the government invests the money into areas which is sees to be crucial for the future, so dependent on the priorities, the budget is spent taking into account these and areas of needed development; so if it isnt spent directly reflecting government priorities, it has taken these into account and spent it most wisely considering areas that need improvement but are not always priorities. Bibliography

Monday, October 14, 2019

Change Along The Production Possibility Curve Economics Essay

Change Along The Production Possibility Curve Economics Essay According to McTaggard D et al. (1999), production possibility curve shows all the possible combinations of two goods that a firm can produce within a particular time period with all its resources fully and efficiently employed. What is more, droughts and extreme climate conditions could shift the frontier to the left. However, technological improvement, the capital stock rise and grow in the amount of employees, in their skills and educational levels bring movement to the right. Moreover, increase or decrease in quantity of one goods leads to change along the PPF. When human capital in protest, there will be decrease in workforce. Therefore (→ production possibility curve will shift to within frontier. During the event of protest or strike, there will be drop in human capital. Furthermore PPF shifts to the left. In order to produce more of one goods, we have to give up the other goods because of scarcity. That is why, movement occurs along the PPF (from point A to B). As a mentioned in case c, if we want to increase one goods we have to decrease number of other goods. In that case, we face movement along the PPF(from point C to D) In this situation, female and male both prohibited from entering some occupations. Therefore they have less ability to access which means drop in number of workforce then PPF will shift to the left. Spending less on defence and more on education means they are giving up one good and service in order to increase other one. At a moment change occurs along the PPF (from point E to F). But supporting education level may bring economic growth in the future economy. When government giving higher rate of unemployment benefit, it discourages school-leavers from work. On the other hand, people seem to be preferred being unemployment. As consequence, in the economy there will be decrease in workforce. Therefore, it leads PPF shift to the left. Section 2 To define what is happening in France and Australias economy first lets examine what is supply, demand, and equilibrium and why they do change. Demand According to Begg D et al. (2003) demand refers the maximum amount of a product that consumers are willing and able to buy during a particular period at various prices, holding all other relevant factors constant. What is more, holding all other relevant factors constant as price grows quantity demanded drops and as price declines quantity demanded rises. In addition, demand curve shifts when its relevant factors change such as the price of other products, income, population, preferences and future price expectations. A shift of demand curve is change in demand. The shift to outward represent rise in demand and shift to inward is a decline in demand. Furthermore, when price of good and service change, we face movement along the demand curve. Supply Supply is the quantity of a good and service that manufacturers are willing and able to produce in the market at various prices, all other relevant factors being held constant. The relationship between price and quantity are positive. If price of good and service is high manufacturers are happy to produce more and more. On the other hand, if the price of good and service set low, they will supply fewer. Change in price does not shift supply curve but it leads to movement along the supply curve. Moreover, supply curve may shift because of change in substitutes and complements in production, price of factors of production, technology, future price expectations, effects of the weather and number of producers. Equilibrium According to Sloman and Hinde (2007) supply and demand both together describe market equilibrium. Equilibrium price and quantity exists where the quantity supplied exactly equal quantity demanded for the good and service. Therefore, when demand and supply curves change, equilibrium price and quantity change too. Because of the poor grape harvest the supply of French wine decreased which is supply curve shifted to the left. As a result of supplying fewer quantity of French wine in the market, its price increased. Therefore, equilibrium quantity and price both change as well. The graph below shows decrease in quantity supply leads to increase in products price. As consequence, decrease in quantity demanded new equilibrium price and quantity take place in the market.(E1-E2). Decrease in supply of French wine leads to increase its price. As result, there will more demand for Australian wine (Australian wine demand will shift to the right). Moreover, when demand increases products price and quantity will increase. Also, change in equilibrium price and quantity too.(E0 -E1) Section 3 1. C 2. D 3. A 4. A 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. B 9. A 10. D

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Theme of Dehumanization in Breakfast of Champions Essay -- Breakfa

The Theme of Dehumanization in Breakfast of Champions "Dear Sir, poor sir, brave sir: You are an experiment by the Creator of the Universe." (Vonnegut 259) Imagine if this was addressed to you. What an awful feeling of betrayal and loneliness you would no doubt get. But what if next you heard this? "You are the only creature in the entire Universe who has free will. You are the only one who has to figure out what to do next-and why. Everybody else is a robot, a machine." (Vonnegut 259) Surely you would feel like your entire existence was a big joke, one at your expense. You would feel desensitized, remote, and detached from all human feeling. You would be a poor victim, someone taken hold of by the cold grasp of dehumanization. The American Heritage Dictionary defines dehumanize as "To deprive of human qualities or attributes" or "To render mechanical and routine". This certainly does a grand job at describing the callous, inhuman, and cold feeling you get when reading the novel Breakfast of Champions. In his book Breakfast of Champions , Kurt Vonnegut Jr. uses bold motifs, complex characterization, a plot of mundanity and shallowness, elementary diction, and satirical style to emphasize his main theme of dehumanization. In 1922, Kurt Vonnegut Jr. was born in Indianapolis, Indiana to Edith Vonnegut and Kurt Vonnegut Sr. At the age of 18 he graduated from Shortridge High School and pursued a degree in chemistry at Cornell University. (Bonner, par. 1) However, he left college in 1943 to serve his country in World War II. Upon return, Vonnegut continued his studies at the University of Chicago in the field of anthropology. (Encarta, par. 4) In 1950 He left his job and started writing full-time. Vonnegut's other works include ... ...his main theme of dehumanization. He does this using bold motifs, complex characterization, a plot of mundanity and shallowness, elementary diction, and satirical style. He shocks and confuses us with his style of writing, leaving us floundering with questions. Through all this he makes the human race seem empty and alone. But he is right in doing so, because we in fact are. 1 n : an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates 2 adj. : placed side by side often for comparison; "juxtaposed pictures" Bibliography: Vit, Marek. Home Page. Bonner, Stephanie E. Home Page. Anonymous. Encarta. Vonnegut, Kurt. Breakfast of Champions. New York, New York: Dell Publishing. 1973.