Wednesday, July 31, 2019

The Fashion Channel HBS Case Notes

Introduction The protagonist of this case is Dana Wheeler who is the senior vice president of marketing for TFH She was looking into preparing a new Segmentation and Positioning Strategy If her boss liked what he heard then they would move forward with a 60 million dollar MIMIC campaign utilizing national advertising, promotion, and public relations.This was an increase of 15 million dollars from last year. Background TFH was a successful cable network that was the only one who broadcasted up-to- date news about fashion 24 hours a day, 7 days a week It was founded in 1996 It has had consistent and constant growth since the beginning, revenue was projected to grow to 310 million dollars in 2006 marking another steady year of growth.The channel was one of the most widely available niche networks reaching 80 million US households (this number represents the number of people who had TFH in their package not those watching it) Women between 34 and 54 years were its most avid viewer accord ing to its annual demographic survey Beyond basic demographics the network had no other information on its viewers Nor did it attempt to market to any viewer segments in particular Early on the network had chosen a something for everyone† type of strategy in its programming and advertising TFH has clearly grown quickly despite it lack of targeted marketing, however at the beginning of 2006 TFH had realized that other networks were taking note of its success Some of its biggest competitors became Lifetime and CNN who had added fashion programming to their lineup This is what prompted Tech's CEO to want to change up TFH marketing and be more strategic with their marketing, this is why they hired Dana who extensive experience with marketing packaged consumer goods as well as broad experience in advertising.Tech's CEO and other executives felt some urge to resist change and didn't want to â€Å"fix what wasn't broken† Wheeler's Plans Frazier (senior up of ad sales) had warn ed that TFH would need to drop the price of a unit of advertising by 10 % if changes weren't made in Tech's performance He mentioned that CNN and Lifetime's fashion shows were achieving notable ratings (EXHIBIT 1) Frazier was a great salesman and was Justifiably worried about sales Wheeler knew that in order to hold or increase the price it would be crucial to attract a critical mass of viewers who were interested in the network's content and were attractive to advertisers The key would be targeting the right viewers and offering advertiser an attractive mix of viewers when compared to their competitors BUT if she changed the network's offering in a way that disappointed too many consumers it could risk losing its distribution support Her plan was to build a strategy for segmentation and use it as a base to employ all marketing tools at her disposal, traditional/internet ads, PR and promotions to reach targeted consumers Everyone felt that advertising was TFH primary growth opportun ity. Tiff's Advertising Revenue Model TFH was on target to generate 230. Million dollars in 2006 from advertising The advertising business model was built on attracting a mix of male and female viewers on a regular basis – think â€Å"something for everyone† strategy Tuft average rating was 1. 0 with 110 million households or 1. 1 million people people watching at any given time.The ad sales team sold access to viewers through 30 to 60 second spots to a variety of advertisers which included automobile manufacturers, clothes companies, and cosmetic companies There were usually 6 minutes of advertising per 30 minutes of programming (20 percent); 24 hours per day; for a total of 2016 minutes per week In 2006 industry data showed that advertisers spent 20 billion dollars on advertising in cable industry, however there were over a hundred networks competing for these dollars which made competition fierce. TFH was the only dedicated fashion network If CNN and Lifetime are su ccessful more channels may copy them creating more competition for TFH The network based ad unit prices on several factors The number of viewers (ratings) The audience characteristics (demographics and lifestyle)Both of the are hurting ad sales and hurting Tech's CPM TFH was facing additional competitive challenges in its attractiveness to cable affiliates. On a scale of 1 to 5 TFH achieved a 3. 8 whereas fashion programming on CNN scored a 4. 3 while Lifetime scored a 4. 5 On awareness TFH scored 4. 1; CNN 4. 6; and Lifetime 4. 5 On perceived value TFH scored 3. 7; CNN 4. 1; and Lifetime 4. Memo's use the aforementioned data to determine Affiliate Fees and which package to offer TFH in. If TFH continues to underperformed it may be offered in less appealing packages making it seen in even fewer households, ruining its prospects of revenue growth or even survival.The Data strongly indicates that change in programming need to happen so that TFH can increase consumer interest, awarenes s, and perceived value This change could result in upsetting some of the existing loyal viewers The Management team had been with TFH for years and experienced large amount of their growth arguing safe marketing strategies where Wheeler is asking them to take a risk. Attitudinal Research Findings The Following Data can be found in Exhibit 2 and Exhibit 3 There are four unique groups of viewers Factionists Planners & Shoppers Sustainability Basics While the segments varied in size, Wheeler quickly noticed that the smallest -The Factionists- had a high degree of interest in fashion Most of the male interest occurred in the Basics cluster- the least likely to be engaged with TFH content. Factionists, Planners, and Sustainability all had cluster of women between the ages 18 to 34, the premium demographic.By investing in a major marketing/advertising campaign it would be reasonable to expect that awareness and viewing of the channel would go up This could deliver a ratings boost of 20% a nd would take the rating from 1. 0 to 1. 2 If the current audience mix stayed the same, ad sales were predicting a ten percent drop to $1. 80 Wheelers Preferred Strategy Targeting Factionist's, Shoppers/Planners, and Situational All segments mentioned have clusters of the desired age group but both Planners and Situational are made up of older women their existing audience and they would all be targeted It is likely to assume that ratings would increase from 1. 0 to 1. No clear data is given about CPM No clear data is given about the increase in cost of programming Alternative Strategies Focusing on Factionists This segment was strong in the highly valued 18-34 female demographic It was smaller that other segments representPrimarily targeting Men Pursue a desirable demographic as men of all ages are a premium demographic No data on ratings No data on CPM No data on Programming costs, however it would be likely to assume that costs would pike as all current programming is geared to s lightly older women (their current primary demographic) They would likely and very quickly lose all of their current audience due to shift in programming for a demographic that they are unsure they can even secure. High short-term risk as all current audience will be lost and could result in ratings loss and being taken off the basic cable package Long-term if this strategy is successful, men could be a larger audience than women as more age groups are desired by advertisers. This could result in greater affiliate fees and ad sales.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

The Story of an Eyewitness Essay Analysis

In The Story of an Eyewitness, journalist Jack London gives readers a vivid first-person account of the terrible aftermath of the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco. London's report originally appeared in Collier's Weekly, May 5, 1906. As a reporter, London uses his writing experience to illustrate the devastation he witnesses by using similes, metaphors, irony, and personification. His incredible descriptions transport the reader right into the burning streets. The story begins with the earthquake destroying many buildings and causing hundreds of thousands of dollars of damage. However, London expresses emphases on the fire that caused hundreds of millions of dollars in damage. He uses a metaphor to describe what he saw, â€Å"San Francisco's burning was a lurid tower visible a hundred miles away. † Next, he uses personification to illustrate his picture, â€Å"and for three days and nights this lurid tower swayed in the sky. London states that the fires spread quickly throughout the city, and could not be controlled by any man. Again, he uses personification to bring the fire alive, â€Å"Thus did the fire of itself build its own colossal chimney through the atmosphere. † London uses irony to describe the fires on Wednesday night, â€Å"Remarkable as it may seem, Wednesday night while the whole city crashed and roared into ruin, was a quiet night. † The fires lasted two days, Wednesday morning until Thursday night. While the city was burning, inhabitants tried to flee the city with their belongings. People tried to make it up San Francisco’s many steep hills, but had a hard time, so they ended up leaving most of their things behind. London uses a simile to paint the picture of the people giving up, â€Å"In the end, completely played out, after toiling for a dozen hours like giants. † After the fires burned out, all of the buildings, hotels, stores, and houses in San Francisco were gone. Many people became homeless. London’s simile describes the aftermath, â€Å"San Francisco, at the present time, is like the crater of a volcano, around which are camped tens of thousands of refugees. † Ironically, Jack London does not end the story with gloom and doom. After all the destruction and devastation, London brings back hope by informing readers that the United States Government is going to help the refugees. Also, we are assured that San Francisco is not dead because the bankers and business men have already set about making preparations to rebuild San Francisco.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Assess factors influencing adoption and use of ICT in Kenyan University Libraries

Assess factors influencing adoption and use of ICT in Kenyan University Libraries Information Communication Technology (ICT) is the process of accessing or getting, storing, transferring, processing and transferring ideas and information through computers and other communication facilities (Fabunmi, 2012). Wikipedia defines ICT as the hardware and software of electronic devices such as computers, radio, television, digital camera, telephone, computers networks to improve communication. ICT has played a critical task in the development of any nation; it has been a tool for achieving social, economic, educational, scientific and technological development (Adedeji, 2010). The development of science and technology has made incredible improvement in the lifestyle of the society today. It has Influence almost all walks of life, especially, the magnetic words; Information Technology has been chanted in all corner of the world and has been incorporated in organization, managerial, development and marketing sectors. These are services offered with the aid of Information Communication Technology (ICT) which are faster and more effective. Libraries have not been exempted from the impact of the ICTs. The implementations of ICT in the library and Information Centers have made great improvement in the management of these centers. These have made libraries users friendly and have improved the efficiency of the library professionals (Kumar, 2011). According to Khan et al, (2012) Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have impacted greatly on many fields including teaching, learning, research, and school management in a many ways. In libraries ICT has made information faster from acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval. Also it has improved the service delivery of library and information services reducing time, distance and other barriers. However, it is extensively settled that ICT adoption in libraries is not a solution for all library problems as initially assumed. Regardless of their remarkable potential, ICTs have also brought different challenges that must be dealt with to boost the efficiency of libraries in unindustrialized countries. Avemari, (2011) describes library automation as computer use and general/ customized software designed for library and information services procedures that are used to perform specific information services deliver. Globally automation in libraries first began in the 1960s. According to Muhammad (2014) Libraries automation began in the 1970s, where libraries began adopting software applications and Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC). In 1980s, network technologies, optical discs, CD-ROMs and communications technologies were introduced. The major goal of the early technology applications was used in automation circulation, acquisitions and the catalogue to make library operation and services efficient and effective. The 1990s witnessed radical changes in the application ICTs in libraries such as the Internet, World Wide Web protocols. The 2000s is an era of digital libraries, virtual collections, paperless environment and 24/7 instant remote access to unlimited resources. In Africa it began in 1950s, however, there were several challenges which were making it harder for academic libraries to adopt it, thus depriving them of the several touted benefits a library stands to gain from automating its services. In Kenya, most libraries, especially universities, schools, private organizations and little-funded institutions, were using Computerised Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System (CDS/IS) library software. CDS/ISIS was used mainly for maintaining databases. For instance, the University of Nairobi maintains a list of research theses in Kenyan institutions of higher learning and a list of publications held in libraries in Kenya using Computerised Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System(CDS/IS)(Mutula, 2012). Kamba (2011) also noted that Information Communication and Technologies are not well spread and utilized in African higher learning institutions, mainly due to poor communication network, inadequate ICT hardware and software and government s ineptitude to provide adequate funds to run the libraries. Inadequacy of skilled staff, lack of theoretical knowledge, lack of computer culture, lack of knowledge on the importance of ICT, lack of funds were among other factors have been cited by several authors. 1. 2 Statement of Problem ICTs have become an important subject for all information providers. This is because of its relevance and application to tasks in the library such as quick and easier access of information and performing of library tasks with greater efficiency. Despite these benefits of ICT use many libraries are still not automated. Most of the problems faced by these libraries include; lack of sufficient funds to support the purchase of the technology, lack of qualified library professionals, lack of motivation and poor remuneration need among librarians to adopt ICT in their daily operations, lack of awareness of ICT potential users and poor attitude of library staff on automation. Other problems such as government policies, maintenance and security issues also consist of challenges faced by the libraries in the adoption of and implementation of ICT. Libraries need adequate finances to obtain current ICT facilities such as scanners, photocopiers, computers, servers, software and paying of online and offline services such as e- journals and digital libraries which are very expensive to be purchased, and this has made many libraries lag behind because of insufficient funds. Lack of qualified professional has been a great hindrance to adoption since most of the staff do not have adequate skills to handle computers and other information technologies. Staff motivation, poor remuneration and attitude have also been considered as factors affecting adoption in libraries. This has contributed to migration of skilled labor in search of better job opportunities abroad thus affecting the adoption of ICTs. Staff attitude has also been considered as problem since most staff feel that automation of libraries will take away their jobs. Lack of sufficient information on the potential user has also been a problem that hinders adoption, since most users had bad perception on ICT. University libraries need to sensitize their students and library staff that ICTs are very important part of library and library systems. They make it possible for information to be easily accessible, available with minimal effort. Given that libraries are the physical foundation of knowledge. It is therefore critical that they are equipped and every opportunity to make them efficient explored. However various factors impede the progress for the adoption of ICTs in uni versities. Therefore the study will assess the factors that influence the adoption and use of ICT in the university libraries in Kenya. 1.3 General Objective of the Study This aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing adoption and use of Information Communication Technology in the Kenyan University Libraries. 1.3.1 Specific Objectives of the Study The objectives of the studies were: i. To determine whether students and staff perception and attitudes towards ICT has influence adoption and use of ICT in at the University of Eldoret library. ii. To analyze effects of perceived benefits of ICT in the adoption and use ICTs at University of Eldoret library. iii. To establish how the availability of ICT technologies has influenced the adoption and use of ICTs in University of Eldoret library. 1.4 Research Hypotheses i. Ho1: The students and staff perception and attitude towards ICT has no significant influence on the adoption and use of ICT at the University of Eldoret library. ii. Ho2: Perceived benefits of ICT have no significant effect on the adoption and use ICTs at the University of Eldoret library. iii. Ho3: The availability of ICT technologies has no significant influence on the adoption and use of ICT at the University of Eldoret library. 1.5 Assumption of the Study The study assumes the respondent selected to participate in the study were honest and truthful and they represent the population of the study. 1.5 Significance of the Study i. The study findings were beneficial to the library staff and users of the University of Eldoret to acknowledge the benefits of ICT usage in the library. ii. The study findings will be of useful to the entire university as it will provide sufficient information on ICT and it will make them have positive attitude towards ICT use in the library. 1.7 Scope of the Study The study was carried at the University of Eldoret Library. The research concentrated on factors influencing the adoption and use of ICT in the university library. 1.8 Limitation of the Study The limitations of the study were the area of study; the study was carried out at University of Eldoret Library. Secondly, the researcher had no control over the sincerity of the respondents in giving accurate and reliable responses. This also depended on individual capacity to read and understand the English language in a way that conveyed the same meaning to every respondent. 1.9 Conceptual Frame Work of the Study The conceptual framework is used to show the association linking the dependent and independent variables. CT adoption is the dependent variable in the study. The dependent variable provides the solution to the problem i.e. what contributes the University to adopt ICT in their Libraries? In this situation, the study has tested three independent variables i.e. perceived benefit of ICT, user and staff perception and attitude towards ICT, and availability of Technology. These factors are believed to have some influences towards the dependent variable (ICT adoption) either in positive or negative way. Figure 1 Conceptual Framework 1.9.1 Perceived benefits of ICT One of the factors that might affect ICT adoption in the firms is the benefits. Peyala (2011) asserts that computerization of acquisition unit enhances funds control, quick and easy checking of approved books, devoid of duplication is managed. There are several benefits that have been made accessible through ICT adoption and there are still several organizations that are not taking advantage of ICT. Therefore, perceived benefits are taken into consideration as one of the factors that affect ICT adoption in Libraries. 1.9.2 Students and staff perception and attitude on ICTs Attitudes of librarian are crucial in the adoption and use of ICTs in the libraries because they librarians affect the adoption if they are not checked properly. The acceptance of the ICTs by library professional is a crucial factor in the realization of the mission of the university library. For successful utilization of technologies in university libraries librarian should change their attitude toward these ICT tool. 1.9.3 Availability of ICT Technology The availability and utilization of ICT facilities is essentially to fast track the processes about and to ensure that information resources spend the least period of time in library. Use of ICT technologies in the libraries provides most effective and efficient retrieval option to the library clientele. In computer system and network, availability has been described as the amount of time facility is available in the wake of components over a specified period of time. 1.9.4 Management Support Management support refers to the degree to which an individual believes that management has committed to the successful implementation and use of a system. Duan (2012) Believes it ensures the limited resources and technological expertise are allocated for the embracing of new technology. Many university libraries are still lagging behind in terms of technology adoption due to lack of management commitment to support the technology both financially and formulating pertinent policies that provide the essential infrastructure for adoption of ICT. 1.10. Operational Definition of Terms Adoption: In the study adoption is used to show how libraries are changing functions of the library from manual paperwork to the use of machines. Attitude: in the study attitude has been used to show how user feels about ICT use in the libraries. Perceived benefits: In the study benefits has been used to show the how ICT has influenced the service delivery in the library easy. ICT: In the study ICT has been used as technologies used to generate process, store and disseminate information. ICT application: it has been used in the study to show ICT based serviced in the Library. Library Automation: In the study it has been used to define the application of ICT in the day to day operations of the library. Library Networking has been used in the study to show a group of Libraries and Information Centers that are interconnected for some common pattern or design for information exchange and communication with a view to improve efficiency. Library Management Library Management includes the following activities which are geared up by the use of these fast ICT based developments, Classification, Cataloging, Indexing, Database creation, Database Indexing. Digital library: has been used in the study to mean a library in with a significant proportion of the resources that is available in machine-readable and accessible by means of computers. E-reference services: has been used to show how electronic references services that has been enhanced with the use of ICTs. Online Searching: has been used to refer to searchable information o on line. Which includes electronic resources and databases can be searched using the Internet through search engines. Virtual library: has been used in the study to mean access points as well as the graphic records are in electronic/digital form when these electronic/digital libraries are connected via various networks, particularly the internet, this is called virtual library. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter presents a review of the related literature by various researchers, scholars, analysts and authors. The researcher has drawn materials from several sources based on the theme and the objectives of the study. 2.2 Overview of ICTs in Libraries ICT is often used as an extended synonym for Information Technology (IT), but is a more specific term that comprises of computers as well as necessary software, storage, and audio-visual systems, which have enabled users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. The term and Communications Technology entails the science and skills of computing, information storage, and communications. It is a new, rapidly emergent area that is drastically changing the world by making potential new methods of doing business, entertaining, and crafting art. ICT has plays a crucial role in hastening sustainable development as well as bridging the ever-growing gap in our present-day society. There is, yet, a vital need to channel the immense potentials of ICT in the correct direction for the improvement of the corporation and active human development (Adesoji, 2012). Currently Information Communication Technology has been the latest buzz word in the information and Technology arena. In fact the formal ways of communicating available information to end users from the various sources are among the major challenges nowadays. These days information can not only be stored, retrieved, disseminated in many forms bit also at higher speeds. Information Technology has open unprecedented opportunity in the form in which information is stored, retrieved, manipulated and exploited. There are three key components of the new technology .These are:  ¢ New ways of storing information cheaply.  ¢ New mechanism of manipulating, scanning and research such records  ¢ New facilitates for cheap and rapid transmission of information over long distances. With the hasty development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) the traditional concept of libraries has changed to modern academic libraries which has great potential, energetic and can reach their users without the limitations of geographical boundaries. In this era of internet libraries are fast changing to digital mode which can be accessed collectively. (Kamani, 2011). A study by Oyeyini, (2014) shows that ICT has brought tremendous changes in library and information science by changing the traditional concept of libraries from a store house of books to an intellectual information Centre. It is of no doubt, that it has open up a new stage in library communication and facilitated global access of information crossing the geographical limitations. Libraries now can use various types of technologies to perform some or all basic library procedural operations such as cataloguing, acquisitions, circulation, and on-line information access. Similarly ICTs has impacted in libraries by provide access to information resources and services leading to the disappearance of the notion of a library as have been known for years as a physical structure located in a particular geographical setting. It has changed the nature of library services over time as library â€Å"collections† comprise not only of physical information materials such as books, periodicals, films, videos, and others, stored in physical library structures, nowadays it include digital resources generated locally and those accessed through the Internet from laptops that are managed by other libraries.( Awour Kefah, 2013). 2.3 ICTs application in University Libraries Application of Information Communication Technology is very useful for libraries in creating databases of their own and making them available to users through networks. ICT has also enabled libraries to offer effective and efficient services to the end-users . Nearly all of the library operations like book acquisition, circulation, office management, the information services, are connected together, and are dependant and are mutually supportive for overall administration of library. Emerging of new technology has library revolutionize new ways of information storage and retrieval in university library field. In this technology era more and more libraries in the world make use of these new technologies for storage, retrieval and distribution of information in more effective way. Libraries have ability to store large amount of information using this new technologies and can transmit this information to anywhere anytime without any geographical barrier (Kamani, 2011) Now days there are numerous ICT technologies for various library functions, these includes; housekeeping, organization and managerial functions, which utilize different electronic and digital media equipment, networks and internet which has provide significant role in retrieving and dissemination of information thus playing a vital role by upgrading of libraries. According to Saleem (2013) some of these applications are: i. Library Automation is the concept of changing human involvement in all library services to enable any user to receive preferred information within his comfort and at the lowest cost. Main areas of the automation are classified into organization of all library database and housekeeping operations of library. ii. Library Networking this involves connecting of libraries and information centers to widespread pattern or design to enable information exchange and communication in the common view of improving efficiency. iii. Library Management involves the following activities which are certainly geared up by the use of fast Information Communication Technologies developments, library Classification, Cataloging, Indexing, Database creation, Database Indexing. iv. Digital Library refer to an assembling of digital computing, storage and communication of machinery together with the content and software needed to create, imitate and extend the services provided by conventional libraries v. E-reference services: These are digital reference which are available for the user. This includes Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI and Current Awareness Service (CAS) are enhanced with use of ICTs. vi. Online Searching: ICT has promoted on line searching, electronic resources and databases which can be searched using the Internet through search engines. This has provides a great resource for researchers and general information retrieval. Buarki (2011) in his study on Impact of ICT on library and Library Information System observed that modern library and information system can be grouped into four areas, as follows: a) Computer Technology. b) Communication Technology c) Reprographic Technology d) Printing Technology 2.3.1 Computer Technology Computers are now used extensively in the library operations and have great impact in the management of libraries and information centers. Computer technologies have been used in various fields of library activities. Some of these areas where computer application takes place are: Information Resource Building: This involves acquisition of books, monographs, audio-visual, electronic equipment such as CD-ROM, maps etc. Acquisition process involved the following functions:  ¢ Checking duplicates in book acquisition in library.  ¢ Books supplier selections.  ¢ Preparing and cancellation of orders  ¢ Checking orders which are long overdue.  ¢ Record of items on order of acquisition  ¢ Records of received and non-received items and receipt to the book supplier  ¢ Verification of items with order files and invoice number.  ¢ Inspection of items ordered by the concerned department.  ¢ Preparation of payment after accessioning.  ¢ Preparation budget and maintaining accounts statistics. Data Entry This requires database for each: Books, Clients/Members, Serials, Audio-visuals, CD-ROMS, Floppies, Gifted items, and Maps, Reports etc. Classification and Cataloguing are:  ¢ Catalogue card production.  ¢ On-line cataloguing  ¢ Duplicating and checking of catalogue cards.  ¢ Producing duplicate catalogue cards.  ¢ Preparing authority file subject.  ¢ Catalogue cards checking and filing.  ¢ Automatic generation of added entries  ¢ Generation of monthly accession list. Circulation Control:  ¢ Registration of membership.  ¢ An issue, returns, renews documents reservation and production of the slips for proof.  ¢ Recording charges for late, lost book, binding and production of penalty slip.  ¢ Maintaining of circulation statistics  ¢ Inter -library loan.  ¢ Statistics of circulation report Serial Control:  ¢ Input essential serials data.  ¢ Preparing of new list serials orders.  ¢ Preparing mode of payment,  ¢ Updating and receipting the records.  ¢ Receipting of Book seller or publishers.  ¢ Preparing the list of present holdings, missing, additions, cancellation of serials chronologically, subject-wise, etc.  ¢ Renewing and cancelling of present subscriptions.  ¢ Accessing register of bound serials.  ¢ Preparing budget sand maintaining accounts. Documentation and allied services:  ¢ Indexing and abstracting of micro and macro documents.  ¢ Catalogue compilation  ¢ Current Awareness Services.(CAS)  ¢ Searching of literature.  ¢ Selective Dissemination of Information.(SDI)  ¢ Clipping of newspaper. Information Retrieval:  ¢ Creation of database and maintenance, interactive searching, saving of in house.  ¢ Searching and print outs of queries against specified requirement  ¢ Information about the books (issued, reserved, lost, overdue, weed-out), member-ship, inter library loan, penalty charges, periodicals, etc.  ¢ Retrieval of information alphabetically, chronologically, per-subject members, reserved words with each particulars such as accession no-wise, title, author, call number, edition etc. 2.3.2 Communication Technology Communication is the process of transforming information from the source to the destination. Communication, the exchange of information and the transmission is very essence in a social system or in an organization. Dictionary meaning of communication is news or the act of making oneself understand the means of sending information between one place to another. In modern days, various means of communicating the information came into existence. There is a need to communicate information effectively, efficiently and timely by applying modern technologies such as communication technology. The main areas of communication technology are; Audio-visual technology, Fax, Telex, E-mail, Video text, Tele text, Online search, Tele conference, Voice Mail Box, Satellite Technology, Cellular telephones, Internet, Intranet, Extranet, CD-ROM, and DVD. 2.3.3 Reprographic Technology Reprography is also known as micrography is a reproduction process. It has made a great impact on document delivery system. Nowdays it is possible to record micro images in a range of microforms such as microfilm, microfiche, ultra fiche and COM (Computer Output Microform). Micro-graphics is a powerful micro-force for records management and information control. Reprographic technology covers: a) Photocopying b) Micro-copying c) Optical/Digital process 2.3.4 Printing Technology Printing or Printing Technology has great importance and playing important role in information and communication process. It has various evolutionary changes from making of paper and invention of printing to the modern printing technology of laser printers. Printing Technology covers: a) Technical Writing b) Editing c) Publishing 2.4 Adoption of ICTs in the University Library ICTs have significantly transformed the world, from the time it was discoverers few years ago. Librarians have adopted a range of technologies to provide different types of services. Mairajand El-Hadi (2012) in a study on ICTs in libraries find out those ICTs has not only changes library everyday operations and services, but have also impact librarians with new and active role in the library. It has also change the way in which information is being handled resulting to speedy and accuracy information access, retrieval, stored and manipulating hence disseminating users in different forms. Computer telecommunication and mass storage technologies are main areas of remarkable improvement that have shaped the manner in which librarians obtain, stored, processes, retrieved and disseminate information to their clienteles. (Ogbodo, 2014). Similarly ICTs has also played vital role by changing the conventional methods of library functions by giving new ways for teaching, learning and research in institution of higher education. Through the aid of ICTs tools, it has made it possible to store, retrieve, disseminate and arrange information by developing websites and databases. Information can now be published both by electronic means and by printing making it available to users needs. Oyeyini (2014) noted ICT has impacted on every area of library science especially in the form of library database, improvement of strategies, library structure and consortium. ICTs in libraries has offer access to information resources and services resulting in the fading of the concept of a library being known for decades † as physical building situated in a specific geographic location. ICT has changed the nature of library services over a time. Library collections consist not only of material information resources such as books; periodicals, videos, films, etc are mainly stored in physical library buildings. But now includes digital resources created locally and those accessed online and are managed by other libraries or information service providers (Awour Kefah, 2013). Oyeyini(2014) pointed out that for any library to reach maximum gain in the 21st century, globalization and implementation of information technology will be a great feature of the libraries. The size of libraries or their collections may not be to the standard but rather made it accessible to the major thrust of the library automation. Additionally, Quadri (2012) noted that nowadays libraries are changing their role from the custodian of traditional information resources to the provider of service oriented digital information resources. Extensive use of computers has increased reliance on computer networks, the quality and quantity of information has improved with the use of the internet , thus making university libraries to embrace modern technology for the storing, retrieving and disseminating information. With the inception of various Information and Communication Technologies trends , library operation have undergo restructuring, transformation .From the last many years, librarians have remained unchallenged as the sole custodian and gate keepers of information. But with the introduction of ICTs especially the Internet services, librarians has began to lose the impact of being the sole custodian of information. Krubu Osawaru (2011). Emojorho (2011) also noted that the accelerated adoption and use of information and communication technology (ICT) has resulted in the globalization of information and knowledge resource Islam (2007) .In a consortium, a group of member libraries are linked together via electronic information network and this has tremendously reduces the acquisition costs of information resources and allows users of individual library to have access to numerous information materials that ordinarily one library may not own. Library Automation is required mainly for the following reasons:  ¢ Obtain increased operational efficiencies;  ¢ Relieved professional staff from clerical responsibilities so that they concentrate on user oriented services;  ¢ Improve the services quality, speeds and effectiveness  ¢ Improved access to remote users and other stakeholders (e.g., the general public);  ¢ Improve access of resources on other networks and systems, including the Web;  ¢ Provide new services  ¢ Facilitate large access to information for their clients;  ¢ Facilitate distribution of information products and services;  ¢ Enable library participation in resource-sharing through networks.  ¢ Enable rapid communication with other libraries (including libraries) and professional peers. 2.5 Students and Staff perception and attitude towards ICTs Adekunle (2007) defines attitudes as inclinations and feelings, prejudices or bias, preconceived notions, ideas, fears and convictions about any specific topic .it is chiefly positive attitudes which are assumed to be fundamental in the acceptance, implementation and success of new technologies. Eguavoen, (2011) defined attitudes toward ICT usage as a person s general evaluation or feeling towards ICT, computer and internet service. An attitude has been used to represent perceptions of library staff on the value attached to Information Technology use in libraries-technical processing, collection, organization and user services. It also represents the value of these technologies in the library staff minds. Implementation of information communication technology (ICT) in the university libraries depends largely on the attitudes of librarians to its usage. The application of ICT in libraries has significantly changed libraries operations; which includes automated cataloguing, circulati on, information retrieval, electronic document delivery, and CD-ROM databases etc. Borrego (2010) in his study analyzed on Librarians perceptions on the use of electronic resources at Catalan academic libraries and found that perceptions of the usefulness of bibliographic software management have dramatically increased during the last few years, especially among PhD students. Furthermore he mentioned that librarians have stated that most of the complaints they receive from users were to do with systems breakdowns, inability to access resources off-campus, and discontinued resources. Sachin D. Sakarkar (2013) finds out that the librarians attitude on ICTs depends mainly on trainings which create an ideal atmosphere for ICT orientation of Librarians to change their attitudes favoring ICT amenities. This would certainly minimize the fear of digital divide amongst society and librarian. The ICT adoption and implementation is safe and progressive to the society under the guidance of a well-trained, qualified and positive librarian. Haneefa (2009) in a study of special libraries assesses in detail the application of ICTs in special libraries. The study provides a state of art application of ICT in automated special libraries of premier research institutions. The study identify the factors that promote or hinder application of ICT ,user s satisfaction ,ICT skills of library professionals and the facilities for training in ICT in special libraries. It also assesses the attitude of users and librarians towards the application of ICT. Survey results show that majority of the libraries have basic hardware and software facilities. Majority provide training for their library staff in ICT based services. The librarians and users have a highly positive attitude towards ICT application and the main barrier to ICT application is inadequately trained library professionals. Sagolsem, Purnima Devi Vikas (2009) report a survey conducted among the library professional staff working in public libraries and NGO libraries of Manipur. The main objectives of the study was to find the status of digital environment in Manipur public libraries, The study revealed that public university libraries lack of trained staff with required ICT knowledge. Though most of them had a favorable attitude towards IT application majority were not satisfied with their opportunities to enhance qualifications. The problems in IT application include lack of qualified professionals, high cost of IT infrastructure and insufficient computer facilities. Nair (2009) reports a study of the attitude of librarians in Kerala towards the use of information technology in library and information activities in his thesis. The main objective of the study was to find out the nature of attitude of librarians towards information technology (IT). The study was conducted on a representative sample of 284 professionally qualified librarians in different libraries of Kerala. The results of the study showed that majority of librarians showed favorable attitude towards information technology. They were prepared to accept modern technology in library activities. Librarians considered IT not as a means to reduce their workload but as a device to render effective information service to patrons. Librarians engaged in different professional work were similar in their attitude towards information technology. Kosoko (2014) observed that attitude consists of three main components, these are the affective, behavioral and cognitive, that show how persons feel about a particular issue, what they intend to do about it and what they believe about it. This shows that there is inter-relationship between knowing, feelings and doing. Considering these explanations, attitude can be deduced as a favor or disfavor towards a concept that is positive or negative. Positive attitudes are necessary for the success and significant achievements in an organizations, thus employees are expected to demonstrate positive In addition, a research done by Rajagopal Chinnasamy (2012) on users attitudes and approaches towards e-r-resources and services in academic libraries showed that there was an increasing interest in electronic information resources among the engineering users at associated colleges of Pondicherry University. Olatokunbo (2012) confirmed through his study on electronic information resources awareness, attitude, and use by academic staff members of University of Lagos, Nigeria that 55% of university staff members indicated that the level of awareness of the subscribed electronic information resources by the Library Management is rather low. 2.6 Perceived benefits of ICTs Adoption in the University Libraries In spite of the problems associated with automation, its benefits rather outweigh its disadvantages. It is a known as a fact that automation has enables easy access of library materials, and allows staff to serve users better and facilitate a multitude of tasks such as acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, and reference (Egunjobi Awoyemi, 2012). According to (Awuor kefah, 2013) ICTs has managed to changed several library operations and activities which can now be done better at the same times which were previously not easy to carry out are now possible. These days there are many opportunities ICTs has presented to libraries; most current information is recorded in electronic format. ICT has also contributed enormously on the performance of librarians who are discharging of their duties in the library such as in cataloguing, reference services, circulation management, serials control etc. Similarly Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have facilitated the flow and effective means of communication. It provides correct data collection as well as giving strategies for attaining objectives, which would otherwise be reserved for organizational structures. Okonand Iogbodo, (2014) asserts ICTs have become a way of life the world over even though libraries and librarians in Nigeria are still struggling with the traditi onal methods of information processing, storage and delivery. Saleem (2013) noted Computer has brought in a new impact to the library and information usage. ICTs have enabled library staff to provide quality and valuable information service by giving more remote access to the internationally available information resources. Recently highly sophisticated information technology has facilitated the storage of huge amounts of data or information in a very compact space. Jayaprakash Balasubramani, (2011) stated the University Libraries must increase the numbers of computer to enable the users to maximize the usage of ICT-based resources and services. Information and communications technologies are being used by libraries for book and serial acquisitions, classification and cataloguing, reference service, money transition, user orientation service, interlibrary loan, circulation service, electronic contents, document delivery service, e-mail and chat assistance, web 2.0 interactive sharing, photocopies services and bibliographic service. These oppor tunities not only allow libraries to deliver fast information to users but also promoting remote libraries. (Adeleke Olorunsola, 2010). A comprehensive study by (ibianye 2012), (Ghuloum Ahmed, 2011) shows the cost of maintenances costs of digital library is much lower than that of a traditional library especially with regards to space. Traditional libraries are expensive to maintain. Automated libraries on the other have minimum maintenance; the importance of ICTs is characterized by information services format change, contents and way of producing it, method of production and delivery of information products. The onset of internet has made changed on library profession role from intermediary to facilitator, modern tools for broadcasting information and change from physical to virtual services environment and disappearance of some conventional information services and emergence of modern and innovational web based. (Krubu Osawaru, 2011). A study by Okonand Iogbodo (2014) observed that ICTs had benefited university libraries in the following ways; i. Creation of OPAC: Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) which is the computerized form of the library catalogue .OPAC is easy to use, save space and can be used to access even catalogues of other libraries ii. Networking: this involves linking ICT enables libraries to network. Networking can either be local (LAN) or wide (WAN). This will enable libraries to access information from different types of on line databases, in various disciples, on-line magazine and newspapers, e-journals and e-books. iii. Resource Sharing: ICT has enhanced the creation of a central union catalogue which allows libraries to share their resources with other libraries. iv. Institutional Repositories: This involves compilation of publications which originate from scholars within an academic institution. These are academic theses, dissertations, conference and seminar papers, curriculum vitae, reports, inaugural lectures and any other publication emanating from individual scholars within academic institutions. ICT has enabled other libraries to access the information. v. Library Electronic Security system: ICT has enhanced library security through the use of Radio Frequency Identification Detector (RFID). RFID is the latest library technology used for theft detection. RFID combines radio frequency and microchip technology. vi. Creation of a virtual library: ICT has promoted the establishment of a virtual library. A virtual is a library that exists without any physical space or location. Parvez (2011) noted that owed to the automation, circulation is one of the most affected areas of library operations, it has help saved a lot of time for both users and library staff. Dzandu Boateng (2014) noted that with the inception of web OPAC, users can now search information from anywhere at any time; users can also easily do the reservation of library sources and this has helps to avoid or reduce the theft of library resources with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system. In the confirmation he pointed the respondents revealed that borrowing time was short and the OPAC has made library resources accessible from different angles. However, the study could not confirm if the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has reduced theft in that it wasn t operational because the contractor did not finish installing and she abandoned the job. Additionally automation has enables easy access; that is users are able to search for materials within the library and from remote locations v ia search items as author, title, subject, call number and keyword and allows library staff to better serve users and facilitate large number of tasks. Awoyemi (2012) in his study revealed that, the filling of slips for borrowed books were things of the past; books are just scanned during borrowing. Osawaru Krubu (2011) opines that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has brought unprecedented changes and transformation to university library and information services, digital library information systems (LIS) such as OPAC, users services, reference services, bibliographic services, current awareness services, document delivery, interlibrary loan, audio visual services and customer relations can be provided more efficiently and effectively by using ICTs, as they offer convenient time, place, cost effective, quicker and most-up-to-date dissemination and end users involvement in the library and information services process. The impact of ICT on information characterized services by changes in format, contents and production method and delivery of information products. However with the emergence of internet information and knowledge has changed the role of library and information science professionals from intermediary to facilitator, by providing new tools for disseminati on of information and shift from physical to virtual services environment Mutula (2012) presented the experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. He found that the automation has impacted many project hence increasing access to diversity of electronic resources, improved image of librarians, invention of new services, freeing of library physical space, transformation of the library into a social learning environment, access to local content made possible through digitization, new skills acquisitions, remote access to library electronic resources from different sites.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Historical review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Historical review - Essay Example His father would not leave his son alone either and chose to remain with him. The design was poor as it seems the gas chambers had been converted from something else probably a morgue as there were no doors, windows or even any other form of ventilation. There were no any signs of the place being coated to prevent gas from leaking. They lacked exhaust systems to let out the gas after being used and also lacked heaters or heating systems as well and hence the place was damp. The free-standing chimneys were not real chimneys to produce smoke from the gas chambers or crematorium. They were just there for show and hence the reason they were called â€Å"fake chimneys.† This was true because the smoke channel that produced the smoke was across the room and not where the chimney was located, hence conclusion that the chimneys were just for symbolic purposes. The interview seems to be discrediting all that is there in history books and even movies and documentaries about the holocaust and Auschwitz in particular. The issue about the gas chamber for example leaves the listeners and viewers more in doubt and confused than even before. The same is true about the liberation by the Soviet troops. However, to those not familiar with the holocaust history, then the interview sheds light on the subject and provides an account of the occurrences from another dimension which is educational and informative. It also provides the basics of the holocaust leaving the individual want to find out more about this topic than the interview provides. The article where David Cole was interviewing Dr. Franciszek Piper the director of the Auschwitz museum has some surprising information about the gas chambers that was not previously in the history books. The same is however not reflected in the other article on a first hand basis leaving some information. What seems to be true in this case is the interview with the Dr. because as

Governance and International Relations Lifeboat Ethics Essay

Governance and International Relations Lifeboat Ethics - Essay Example This divide is the basis of much talk within the ranks of the economists and gurus who understand ethics and how it should be implemented across the board . What is even more interesting is the fact that surrounds the determination of resources for the developing nations as they seem to go beyond a certain level of growth within their respective regimes. It is a fact that the world is not that rosy for the underdeveloped countries which essentially have to make both ends meet to ensure that they are on the right path – geared to achieve results which are attainable and positive along the way . On the same token, this paper gives a good look at the lifeboat ethics which indeed is a way to find out where the resource distribution should be acknowledged and how this would mean sheer value for all the nations in the world. Philosophically, it is quintessential to understand the phenomenon behind the lifeboat ethics. This is a term that was proposed by Garrett Hardin, who was an ecologist in the year 1974. Hardin used this metaphor to describe a situation where a lifeboat consisted of 50 people which had room for another 10 individuals to get on board. Since this lifeboat is on the move as it is in the ocean where hundreds of swimmers surround it, the ‘ethics’ element comes in when the dilemma arises with regards to the swimmers . This dilemma discusses whether these swimmers should be taken on board the lifeboat or left as they are at the moment. Hardin believed that the lifeboat metaphor could easily be compared alongside the Spaceship Earth model which consisted of resource distribution where he asserted that a spaceship would be led by a single leader who is essentially the captain of the spaceship. However, the earth lacks a captain4. He also opined that the tragedy of the commons came about from the spaceship model which was completely different from the lifeboat premise where rich nations were seen as the lifeboats while poor countries were termed as the swimmers5. In the same setting, Hardin’s lifeboat ethics resembles closely with the environmental ethics, utilitarianism, resource depletion talks and so on. He uses lifeboat ethics to find out the queries regarding policies such as immigration, foods banks and foreign assistance in the form of aid. Purely from a philosophical perspective, the aspect of lifeboat ethics should be understood with regards to how the policies are drafted for the rich and the poor nations at the same time. This means that their domains are drawn up in such a way that there are successful touch points for the rich countries while extreme losses for the poor ones. This divide is something that has a huge say in deciding who is going wrong and which country needs to pull up its socks to bring harmony within this world in terms o f resource allocation6. Hence lifeboat ethics is a good enough measure of finding out how ethical domains should be understood within the basis of bringing about equality so that no one misses out on the resources which are available throughout the world. In terms of the philosophical undertakings, it is only with the presence of adequate policies that things will get resolved and that too in an amicable fashion for all the nations in the world – without any discrimination whatsoever. Hence attention should be paid towards the philosophical side as well because these remain significant to comprehend within the relevant thick of things. When one discusses the tangent of lifeboat ethics, it is also of paramount essence to gain an insight into what the fallacies are. The future is never known with a particular degree of certainty which is indeed required for the problem at hand. Also there is the basis of no one being likely to be in the situation which has been

Saturday, July 27, 2019

International Distribution and Supply Chain Management Essay

International Distribution and Supply Chain Management - Essay Example Two key technological developments that have enabled customers to transfer and vendors to process consumption data are Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and high-speed, batch-processing forecasting software. Coincident with the advent of these innovations was the evolution of cooperative customer-vendor business programs including Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI), Continuous Replenishment Planning (CRP), and Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFAR) which became the hallmarks of 1990s supply chain management. The combination of new information technology and cooperative supply chain partnerships has made possible the sharing of consumption-based forecasting information in near real time. The results of these developments have been dramatic: improvements in product-forecast accuracy, reductions in supply chain inventories, and efficiencies in product distribution. Instead of monthly factory shipment information, vendors have begun to use four other types of demand data to drive demand planning systems. These alternative data streams are (1) customer forecasts, (2) consumer purchases, (3) customer warehouse withdrawals, and (4) customer orders. Collectively, these customer-supplied data can be used to form the basis for bottom-up product forecasts which, when aggregated and rolled back up the supply chain, more accurately predict independent demand than do factory shipment-based forecasts. Independent demand is the requirement for items that is influenced by factors that are external to the firms that comprise the supply chain. These external factors bring about random variation in demand for such items. Consequently, independent demand forecasts are typically projections of historical demand patterns. As such, it is assumed here that independent demand is derived from point-of-sale (POS) based consumption data, since consumption is outside of the control of suppliers, vendors, and retail customers. The primary reason for using

Friday, July 26, 2019

Alienation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Alienation - Essay Example Alienation appears in different planes for different societies. Race, Gender, abnormalities, intellectual disabilities, nationalities, creed, and ethnicity etc are few of the themes of alienation. Alienation causes pain, frustration, disappointment, rebellions, fights and several other problems. The society’s strange demand of conformity has destroyed the life of thousands of individuals. Alienation is one of the weakest natures of human society. Alienation has destroyed the life of immigrants in America. Alienation closes the door of opportunity for people of color in different parts of the world. Few are not the negative consequences of alienation. It is high time that alienation be rooted out from all societies. Alienation has been the leading theme of several literary works. Pat Mora’s ‘immigrants’ tells the story of a helpless family seeking acceptance in the new land where they reached. Parents are trying to feed their child with the notion of materia lism. They desperately want to teach cultural American traditions to their child. Event though they make hard attempts to transform their children they are not still sure whether American society will accept them. Children loses their natural and cultural personality and at the same time fails to acquire the culture of the new land where they reached. In the poem ‘Sonrisas’ we find the images of living in two world. Through the poem Mora presents some of the experiences she encounters in her life in the two worlds. Mora describes her working place that is strict, dull and boring. The term â€Å"quiet clicking† explains the quietness of her office. Mora’s words like â€Å"black coffee† and â€Å"budgets, tenure, and curriculum† makes the readers understand how boring her office is. Mora is indirectly presenting the alienation she suffers in her work place. The poem heritage presents before the readers the painful experience of a man of color w ho suffers ill treatment being an alien. He is ridiculed because of his dark skin. An alien in the American land will have the same experience. The poem refugee ship also tells the story of the unfortunate speaker who suffers because of her identity. The speaker presents her sorrow, being alienated from her American and Mexican cultures. Literary works include the theme of alienation to highlight the importance of eliminating alienation. Alienation is a painful experience for immigrants. Alienation disturbs the immigrant children in several ways. The effect of prejudice on immigrant children in public schools is not negligible (Takaki 10). Abuse influences the personality of children. According to Karen Horney, experience in the early childhood influences the character development of a person. Hurting experiences can prepare children with criminal attitude. The childhood experiences create the self or character of child. Children may undergo defective self-development because of the abuse that they undergo in their early life. Abuse negatively influences children’s construction of self. They are thus susceptible to various wrong habits and practices. The practice or attitude of showing discrimination towards an individual belonging to a foreign race, ethnicity and nationality is very common in the United States. It is highly prevalent in work places and educational institutions. These attitudes are quite unhealthy and unjust and are extremely intolerant (Simmel 375). Individuals are discriminated on the basis of nationality, race, ethnicity, color and various other factors and are not allowed to exercise their constitutional rights even (Simmel 375). In the educational insti

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The Importance of Postgraduate Education Research Proposal

The Importance of Postgraduate Education - Research Proposal Example There are a variety of postgraduate degrees and diplomas, which a person can pursue in Australia. Mostly, the postgraduate diplomas and certificates are awards that are given to the students who have taken part and completed degree or vacation courses. This postgraduate diplomas and postgraduate certificates may also be awarded to those students who have completed their master’s degree course. It is most common to those who have taken part in postgraduate courses and part-time postgraduate courses. One of the most popular postgraduate options is the postgraduate master’s degree program. The postgraduate master’s courses mostly require that an individual pursuing the course to take a minimum of three years full-time study and provide advanced training in a subject field that is beyond what is normally achieved at undergraduate masters levels. The courses in master’s degree programs vary considerably depending on the subject matter but typically involve some combination of both taught and research elements (Australian government, 2011, web). This postgraduate program is quite prerequisite so that it can obtain funding from the appropriate funding bodies. This postgraduate degree program has a number of options, which an individual willing to pursue it can choose. One of them is the postgraduate master’s in business administration, popularly abbreviated as the MBA. This course is a management course, which looks at managing the organizations in order to ensure that they fulfill their objectives. The program is further divided into various options to suit the students. This includes options in operations management, strategic management, human resource management, finance and banking, and accounting option.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Role of IMF in providing assistanse to countries to overcome their Assignment

The Role of IMF in providing assistanse to countries to overcome their economic problems - Assignment Example The study aims to explain the procedure based on which IMF contributes towards the development of economic conditions of several countries. Also main functions of the IMF is under consideration. IMF is an international organisation that has been established in the year 1944. The organisation is headquartered in Washington D.C., United States. The organisation has been a significant consideration for developing the global financial condition. After the establishment of IMF, the condition of world economy has dramatically changed. To operate the global financial development, IMF has introduced few improvements in its policies for managing the needs in terms of balance of payment. IMF has been developed with the aim of managing macroeconomic factors and to implement structural policies for every poor, rich and middle-income member nations. In this context, the mission of the organisation has been to monitor and manage economic trend that prevails in the global economy The IMF provides necessary policies, advice and financing to member countries of the organization. IMF is an international organisation that has been dealing with global financial or money market. The function of IMF has been helpful in supporting the member countries of IMF. It enables the availability of resources and develops a fund including general resources for low-income countries. IMF has made a complete contribution towards the development of the global economy. IMF has achieved certain success in providing financial support to the member countries.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

MKTG Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

MKTG - Essay Example The main goal of the new product is to capture the upcoming healthy food segment, penetrating the market with a strong presence, grabbing market share and contributing to the revenue. The proper combination of the Marketing mix, which is product, price, place and promotion and the determinant attributes can lead to a successful product. As far as the product is concern, it is just fit for the upcoming healthy food market. People can’t resist the finger licking fast food irrespective of alarming rate of the obesity in the United States. However, in this scenario if the Fast food lovers get an option to have the same tasty food but with lower calories as just 250 units instead of 470 units in Wendy’s single sandwich and 670 units in Burger king’s Whoppers respectively. The vegetarian option is very promising, it has been seen that only three percent of Americans are completely vegetarian. However, almost sixty percent prefer food which is meatless (Campbell, 2008, p 91). This revealing data says that American want foods which are vegetarian in nature. And they would love to have that with the brand name of McDonald’s. The pricing is very much important. McDonald’s has always adopted the penetration pricing strategy. And that is the reason it is the largest seller of the fast foods in the world. The combo healthy meal price is only $ 3.59, which is very much competitive and the individual price for the baked patties burger would be only $ 1.09, the mash potatoes at $ 1.50 and the smoothies at $ 2.29. The interesting part is the combo gives a saving of $1.29 with respect to the individual items if they are bought all by any customer. This pricing strategy would definitely help the new product to penetrate the market easily. The place for the pilot project for the healthy meal has been chosen wisely. The Colorado is famous for the McDonald’s. Once a McDonald’s

Teacher’s Day In India Essay Example for Free

Teacher’s Day In India Essay Since times immemorial, Indians have respected and idolized their teachers. Earlier, we used to call our teachers Guru and now its the contemporary Sir or Madam. Nevertheless, the role of teachers has remained the same. They were, are and will continue to be our guiding light, creating conditions conducive to our overall development. We will always be thankful to them for their constructive support. It is as an expression of this gratitude only that we celebrate Teachers Day in India. Teachers Day is a tribute to the hard work and devotion of the teachers all year long, to educate a child. In India, teacher’s day is celebrated on 5th of September every year. Indian Teacher’s Day is dedicated to Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who was a zealous advocate of education and one of the greatest scholars and teachers of all times, apart from being the first Vice President and the second President of India. As a mark of respect to this phenomenal teacher, his birthday came to be observed as Teacher’s Day in the country. On Teachers day, students across India dress up as their teachers and take lectures in classes that are assigned to the teachers they represent. Sometimes, teachers sit in their classes as students, trying to relive the time when they, themselves, were students. Also, functions are organized in schools on the special day, where students present dance performances, dramas, and various other programs to entertain their teachers. This day provides for a healthy interaction between teachers and students as well. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was one of the most distinguished diplomats, scholars and teachers of India, apart from being the first Vice President and the second President of the country. As a tribute to this great teacher, his birthday is observed as Teachers Day across India.

Monday, July 22, 2019


ROLE OF THE STATE IN ENSURING DEVELOPMENT IN A COUNTRY Essay INTRODUCTION A state may be simply defined as a nation or territory considered as an organized political community under one government. Claude Ake (1992) defines a state as: The organized aggregate of relatively permanent institutions of governance. It is seen as a set of associations and agencies claiming control over defined territories and their populations. The main components of the state are, consequently, decision making structures (executives, parties and parliaments), decision-enforcing institutions (bureaucracies, parastatal organizations and security forces) and decision-mediating bodies (primary courts, tribunals and investigatory commissions). The character of the state in any particular country is determined by the pattern of organization of these institutions at specific points in time. The government is usually used interchangeably with the state but it however represents the people or officers in power who change from time to time but the state does not change. see more:the role of youth in nation building The state plays a major role in the development of a country as it is the government/state that enacts key policies are key to economic success and development in a given country. There has however been a lot of contention especially in African countries about the role of the state in regards to development of a country. This is because many African states relied and still rely heavily on foreign markets and expatriates for development in the country. For example in southern Africa most post colonial states depended on expatriates for the formulation of national developmental plans that ran for 5 to 15 years. These plans were also still financed by foreign donors. AÂ  similar case was seen in Tanzania whose first phase of its ambitious 15 year development plan was funded by external powers with domestic funding being only a fifth of the raised capital. Hence the there is debate as to whether development is brought about by the state or by market forces that are independent. The role of the state in development The state plays the following roles that facilitate development in a country. These roles can be divided into the following categories: a. The role of the state in current development programmes b. Development of good governance c. Development of policies Implementation of reforms These reforms include structural adjustments in the country that manage and control pricing of commodities in the country. Also the state has the powers to control various institutions including private institutions. The state should aim at implementing stable property rights, enforcing the rules and laws of the land and elimination of corruption. The state should also provide supervision over the provision of public goods and services such as transportation and security. Implementing development programs The state plays a major role in implementation of development programs that form a back bone other which development takes place. For example in Tanzania there was implementation of a 15 year development plan with funding from both the state and foreign markets. In Kenya the vision 2030 is another good example of a state drive n development plan that aims at achieving development in the country through various started. The vision 2030 aims to create a globally competitive and prosperous nation with a high quality of life by 2030. The pillars for this 2030 development program include: economic pillar that is aiming at a 10% gross domestic product increase by 2012 by targeting tourism, agriculture, whole sale and retail trade, manufacturing, IT services and financial services. The second pillar in Kenya’s 2030 development program is the social pillar. This pillar aims at investing in the people of Kenya in order to improve the quality of life for all Kenyans by targeting education and training, health, environment, housing and urbanization, youth and sport development, gender children and social development. The state’s role in improvement of these factors will have a direct influence in development in the country. For example the improvement of education by ensuring that all people receive formal education and professional training to create a pool of qualified work force that will supports the economic pillar of development and hence increase in the GDP. The third pillar of the vision 2030 development program is the political pillar. This aims at moving into the future as one nation and envisions a democratic system that is issue based, people centred, result oriented and is accountable to the public. This pillar aims at creating a transparent and accountable government. The vision 2030 for development has already commenced in Kenya with 120 transformational and flagship programmes across each pillar already in progress. This shows one of the roles of the state in implementing development programs and monitoring them. Implementation of quality governance. The state has the function of implementing stable rules and laws that govern the country. These rules protect property rights and create an entrepreneur friendly environment for local and foreign investment in the country. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between good governance and the level of per capita income in the country. Establishment of quality governance leads to increase of per capita income in the country. A good example is China that has experienced exponential growth over the last decade. State-centred accounts attribute China’s economic success to the organizational capacity of local government to monitor and intervene to promote the development of township and village enterprises (Walder 1995). This has seen china change to a strong capitalist economy and by-pass other nations such as the former Soviet Union i.e. Russia that were the favourites to see increased economic and development growth. China boasts of a strong authoritarian national leadership and an elite state bureaucracy that pursues developmental goals and industrial policy (Wade 1990). However this role of the state in development, that is the implementation of good governance has been criticized because in developing countries of which a majority of African countries are there are no resources to implement good governance. This is due to lack of adequate skilled man power and capital to implement close supervision of state development projects. There is also neglect of various areas when development is taking place with localized development of capital cities and major towns at the expense of national development. This leads to most developing countries shifting to economic marketism with privatization of most institutions and the role of development shifts from the state to the market forces and foreign influence that comes with its own disadvantages in that development in the region in a situation of minimal state intervention remains low when compared to the era of economic nationalism, which seems to have recorded higher levels of social development (Khabele, 2002). Implementation of policies The state has the role of implementing policies that increase development and economic growth in a country. In most developing countries the policy challenge is not to get the state out of the way on the assumption that a capitalist market economy is already in existence and that the problem is to make it work better by removing excessive government regulation. The policy challenge is to create market and this should be reinforced by the state. The state should formulate policies that will ensure innovation in the country, structural transformation in terms of infrastructure and industrialisation; policies that will ensure creation of jobs for the people of the country and hence aid to lower poverty in general and increase per capita income in the country. The state has the role of implementing policies in Kenya that will shift the policy in agriculture from neglect of the agriculture sector to active support to farmers through rural infrastructure, developing of linkages between agriculture and other sectors such as foreign exchange and industries. The government should also implement policies to aid in financing agricultural projects and improve the use of technology in agriculture. The Kenyan population rely heavily on agriculture for income and concentration on this resource can increase development in a country. The state also has the role to implement industrial policies that will enable increase in industries and manufacturing in a country. It should also ensure proper attention is paid to the education and training system in the country so that there is a pool of workers for the industries. Increase in industrialisation leads to economic growth and hence developments. The state should also implement good trade policies both locally and internationally. Good trade policies supplement the industrial policy and support the trading environment to maximize on the attractiveness of a countries products and services in the region and globally. Lack of implementation of proper trade policies can hinder economic development and development. A good example is Zimbabwe that had failed to implement a comprehensive national trade policy. This lead to the decline of export earnings by 49% from US$2.6 billion in 1997 to around US$ 1.3 billion in 2008. This limited export of good lead to increased foreign debt of about 25.3% of the GDP in 2001 that greatly hindered economic development in the country. (Khabele et al 2002) the government of Zimbabwe has now realised the need for implementation of proper national trade policies in order to successfully participate in regional and global market. Zimbabwe has now implemented the National Trade Policy whose policy vision is to have trade as the engine for sustainable economic growth and development in Zimbabwe. CONCLUSION The role of the state in development has been an issue of heated debate at theoretical and policy arenas in the African especially since the attainment of independence of most of the countries. Two main alternative or contrasting development agendas that have driven the debate were those of the nationalist political elite or the state (economic nationalism) on one hand and those of foreign capital (economic marketism) on the other. State intervention, as a key policy thrust of a development process is much stronger in respect of economic nationalism, which in itself is an expression of the political commitment of African states to chart independent development paths for their countries. However the role of the state in development is not independent of marketism as foreign and local markets play a huge role in the development process. The ideal situation would be for the state, foreign markets and private sectors to work together I good relation to ensure development in the various A frican countries. REFERENCES 1. African Development Indicators, Drawn from World Bank Africa Database, The World Bank, Washington D.C., 2001 2. Ake, C., ‘Democracy and Development in Africa’; The Brookings Institution, Washington DC., 1996 3. Khabele M., ‘The role of the state in development in SADC region’; council for development in Africa, Ghana, 2002 4. The ministry of Industry and commerce of Zimbabwe data base: ‘’, 2012

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Dietrich Bonhoeffer Against Hitler

Dietrich Bonhoeffer Against Hitler Dietrich Bonhoeffer is remembered for many things. He was a highly influential theologian and preacher. His importance as a theologian has only increased since his death. However, he is also remembered for his opposition against Nazi Germany. For the purposes of this paper, I look at three aspects of Bonhoeffers involvement. First, I examine his statements against Hitler and the extent to which he sought to make his opinions known. Second, I consider his involvement in conspiracies to eliminate Hitler. Lastly, I examine Bonhoeffers reflections on his actions, which he wrote while in prison. Although Bonhoeffers actions may raise many questions of morality and ethics, there is no doubt that he played a significant role within the opposition of Nazi Germany. When many people study the Holocaust, they fault Christians for remaining silent as Hitler performed one horrific act after another. Many would say that silence was just as horrible as killing the victims. Bonhoeffer cannot be faulted for this. Rather, he proved to be very outspoken. One of his most popular speeches was that on a German radio show. He was to speak on The Younger Generations Altered View of the Concept of Fuhrer in the Berlin Potsdamerstrasse Voxhaus (broadcasting house). Dietrich was not hesitant to express how he felt about the Fuhrer principle. This speech was given on February 1, 1933, and Hitler had just risen to power days prior. Much of Bonhoeffers words addressed the notion that the youth had been led astray concerning their concept of the Fuhrer. His boldest statement was said toward the end of the broadcast. However, once broadcasters realized that these words should not be heard by others, he was turned off. This was proof that Joseph Goebbels (the Nazi min ister of propaganda) had most likely gained the control of the radio station. Bonhoeffer stated that his speech was carefully planned to fit the allotted time. His final sentences read, should the leader surrender to the wishes of his followers, who would always make him their idol- then the image of the Leader will gradually become the image of the misleaderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Leaders or offices which set themselves up as gods mock God (Bethge, pg. 260). His entire speech was later copied and distributed. Bonhoeffer felt that the Fuhrer principle was nothing short of idolatry. Therefore, he was implying that Hitler demanded his people to worship him. This was contempt. This proved to be one of Dietrich Bonhoeffers first outbursts on Hitler. However, there were many others of the sort. There is an account in which Bishop Bell gives that he speaks of Bonhoeffer being very outspoken against Germany. Bell recalls sitting with him amongst others at a friends home in Geneva. Dietrich is approached with the question about what he is praying for. He responds with very harsh statements. If you want to know the truth, I pray for the defeat of my nation, for I believe that is the only way to pay for all the suffering which my country has caused in the world (Bosanquet, pg. 229). He was much convicted about the acts of injustice in which Hitler was repeatedly performing. Bonhoeffer knew that the annihilation of the Jews was wrong, and he was not ashamed to let others know his beliefs. Bell gives an account of a later statement that Bonhoeffer made, If we claim to be Christians there is no room for expediency. Hitler is Antichrist; therefore we must go on with our work and eliminate him, whether he be successful or not (Bosanquet, pg. 229). He felt that it was necessary for him to aid in the elimination of the Fuhrer. Next, I study Bonhoeffers involvement in the conspiracy to kill Hitler. He participated in the Abwehr, which was the military counter intelligence. Within this group was also his brother-in-law, Hans von Dohnanyi. It is said that Dohnanyi was directly involved in the plot to assassinate Hitler. However, Bonhoeffer had somewhat of a different role. It was his duty to contact other countries to gain their support if the assassination were to prove successful. He spent much time traveling, making others aware of the resistance movement. He felt that it was important to know that they had allies assuming that the German government was taken over. Upon visiting Geneva, he attempted to convince them of this, What they needed, Dietrich explained, was a signal from the Allies that once the Nazis were overthrown, the Allies were prepared to recognize a new German government (Raum, pg. 126). This was clearly a well thought out plan. Dietrich traveled to Norway, Italy, as well as Switzerland to gain the support of Bishop Bell. He also attempted to make connections with other German resistance groups, but difficulties arose. A very important assassination attempt took place on March 7, 1943. Hitler was traveling to East Prussia by way of plane. A gift disguised as a box of Brandy was given to him. However, it was a bomb. The bomb was sneaked onto the plane, but it never ignited. Involved in this attempt were members of the Abwehr. This included General Oster, Admiral Canaris, Dohnanyi, Fabian von Schlabrendorff, and General Henning von Tresckow (Raum, pg. 132). Due to the failed attempt, the Abwehr decided to try again. They developed another strategy to kill Hitler. Hitler was originally scheduled to attend a ceremony at an army museum on March 16, 1943, however he rescheduled for March 21st. Colonel von Gersdorff was supposed to get the bomb into Hitlers presence without causing much commotion, even if this meant killing himself in the process. Needless to say, this attempt failed as well. Fortunately, they were not caught in the attempt to execute the assassination. Bonhoeffer was at home with his family during this attempt; however he was expecting a phone call announcing Hitlers assassination, and was disappointed to hear of the failed endeavor. There was in fact a third attempt to kill Hitler, but Bonhoeffer had already been arrested. He was arrested in 1943 in connection with the assassination attempt on Hitler (Scott and Cavanaugh, pg. 139). However, since the Abwehr was a secret group, many of the documents were hidden or destroyed. As a result, there was limited evidence. Much of the evidence used to arrest Bonhoeffer was his connection to Operation 7. The operation was designed to help to free several Jews. The Abwehr was attempting to help the Jews to Switzerland. The fact that Bonhoeffer was involved in several attempts to kill Hitler raises many questions. Due to the fact that Dietrich considered himself a devout member of the Confessing Church makes one question how his beliefs would support such an act. However, Dietrich does not express any conviction about his involvement in the multiple plots to murder Hitler. Bonhoeffer clearly felt that the assassination of Hitler was the last resort. Hitlers actions were proving to gain momentum and were spinning out of control. Therefore Dietrich felt that it was necessary to take action. Through the reading of his writings leading up to his death, he does not seem to be living in fear. He almost appears to be welcoming death. In the first sentence of a writing titled Death, he states Come now thou greatest of feasts on the journey to freedom eternal (Bosanquet, pg. 265). As one can see, Bonhoeffer appears to be at great peace with his fate. Many within the prison commented that Bonhoeffer seemed to be very lively and almost happy. Others would argue that this was due to the fact that the Soviets were closing in and that the prisoners were anticipating liberation. However, fellow prisoners describe it as an inner joy that he experienced. This joy Bonhoeffer desired to share with others. During his imprisonment at Tegel while awaiting trial, many descri be Bonhoeffer as victorious. Bonhoeffer experienced a change of heart. As a result, he no longer viewed his own sufferings within prison as something of which he should be concerned. Rather he stated, we throw ourselves completely into the arms of God, taking seriously not our own sufferings, but the sufferings of God in the world (Bosanquet, pg. 271). Bonhoeffer viewed the acts of injustice as not only actions taken against innocent victims, he saw them as actually taking unjust actions toward God. It appears as if Dietrich did not view his involvement in the Abwehr as wrong. Through his writings in prison and the comments of others, he had a clear conscience and eagerly awaited his arrival in Heaven. In conclusion, Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a very influential person during the World War II and especially in opposition to the Nazi Regime. As one can see in his radio broadcast, from the beginning he was very outspoken against Hitler and the Fuhrer principle. He was very bold in comparing this principle to the mockery of God. He played a very active role in the military counter intelligence (Abwehr). Bonhoeffer never hesitated in completing his assignments to gain support of the actions to overthrow the German government. Many would agree that Dietrich Bonhoeffer was very confident that his actions against Hitler were not wrong. Rather, he felt that they were his duty as a result of a conviction to do the right thing. His statements on death and also his inner joy as a result of a relationship with God greatly support this claim.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Love in Desires Baby, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love, and The Nym

Love in Desire's Baby by Kate Chopin, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love by Christopher Marlowe, and The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd by Sir Walter Raleigh The socioeconomic condition and status of a person greatly impacts whether or not love will be reciprocated. That is evidenced by the story of â€Å"Dà ©sirà ©e’s Baby†, by Kate Chopin and the poems â€Å"The Passionate Shepherd to His Love†, by Christopher Marlowe and â€Å"The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd†, by Sir Walter Raleigh. All these literary works relate love with socioeconomic status and how love is subordinated to society’s norms. â€Å"Dà ©sirà ©e’s Baby† is clearly a story about the clash of love and social status. It takes place in Louisiana in a time where slavery was still present and dictated the way of life. It is a story about love and how it can be plagued by racial divide. Armand did not care that Dà ©sirà ©e’s past was unknown and decided to marry her. He probably didn’t care that much because as the saying goes: â€Å"what you don’t know can’t hurt you†. At the time Dà ©sirà ©e had her baby things started to change. When Madame Valmondà © visited Dà ©sirà ©e and the baby it was already obvious by her reaction that race and status were going to affect the love and the marriage. When Armand figured out that the baby wasn’t 100% white the marriage fell apart and it all ended. The fact that his wife was part black was to hard for him to bear, it was something unacceptable in society in those days. In an ironic twist of fa ith Armand then found out through a letter from his mother to his father that he was the one who was actually part black. The story clearly shows how status can interfere with love. As this passage shows it Armand loved Dà ©sirà ©e: The pass... love is a personal feeling it still needs, most of the time, society’s acceptance to become concrete. If society and its norms judge that a love shouldn’t happen and that it isn’t real (even if it is) it usually will not work out, it will be destined to fail. It is said that â€Å"all you need is love†, but that is rarely the case. Most people feel like they need acceptance and that will not happen if they break society’s norms, even love is subordinate to those norms. Works Cited Schilb, John, and John Clifford, eds. Making Literature Matter: An Anthology for Readers and Writers. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003. Marlowe, Christopher. â€Å"The Passionate Shepherd to His Love.† Schilb and Clifford 846-847. Raleigh, Sir Walter. â€Å"The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd.† Schilb and Clifford 848. Chopin, Kate. â€Å"Dà ©sirà ©e’s Baby.† Schilb and Clifford 864-868.

Racism: A Historical and Social Construct in America Essay -- racism,

Racism, will it ever end? The answer is probably not. The United States of America was set up on the basis of race. Even many years ago European settlers looked down upon the Native Americans as inferior. Years later in today’s modern society, racism still exists, although we may not fully realize it. Many people are not aware of how much racism still exists in our schools workforces, and anywhere else where social lives are occurring. Using our sociological imagination, we are capable of applying the role of race to any situation. However, in some situations, race does not play a covert role; it plays a crucial and obvious role. In â€Å"Film Shows Students Battle Racism for Mixed Prom†, Michelle Nichols stated, â€Å"As Barack Obama campaigned to become the first black U.S. President, teenagers in the small Mississippi hometown of Hollywood star Morgan Freeman battled racism to hold their high school’s first integrated prom.† The assumption that racism n o longer exists is false. Racism still exists to the highest degree. Even in the 21st century, prom -- an annual dance for graduating students, is divided and integrated for black and white students at Charleston high school. It’s always about race. Why is racism still rampant in American society? The reason is that even though race is not founded through science, this institution of American society is simply an obsolete combination of historical, social, and cultural construction. It is highly believed by individuals that discrimination in the U.S. has dramatically changed since the 1900s. Blacks were once discriminated against via Jim Crow laws. Today, black Americans have gained the right to eat at public lunch counters, vote, ride public buses, and attend public schools. While the... ...ut hope will happen sometime in our lifetime. Nakashima, Cynthia L. â€Å"Servants of Culture: The Symbolic Role of Mixed-Race in American Discourse,† Pp.35-57 in The Sum of Our Parts: Mixed Heritage. Ed. Teresa Williams-Leà ³n and Cynthia L. Nakashima. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001. "Racial Clash In Texas" CBS Online. July 22. 2009 Web. 4 June 2015. Jane Elliott "Blue Eyes Brown Eyes" Web. 4 June 2015. Pounder, C. "Race: the Power of An Illusion" Corporation for Public Broadcasting,. (2003). San Francisco, Calif. Web. 4 June 2015. Shelby Steele â€Å"Jefferson’s Blood†, Transcript Web. 4 June 2015.